E

Tetramer Staining

Different activation stages of a cytotoxic T lymphocyte. T Cell Mediated Cytotoxicity Mediates Killing of Host Cells Expressing Foreign (Viral) Peptides To kill virus-infected cells the TCR of the CD8 effector CTL must first recognize and bind the peptide MHC complex. Ligation of The antigen-specific TCR and of various adhesion molecules induce stable binding of CD8 effector cells to target cells. These molecules concentrate at the binding region and create a very narrow space...

IgM

Light chain - 1 variable region -1 constant region Figure 1. Structure of prototypic antibody molecule. Figure 1. Structure of prototypic antibody molecule. IgA exists both in monomeric and dimeric form. IgA comprises only about 15 of serum immunoglobulins but is the predominant immunoglobulin class in mucosal surfaces and secretions. Thus this species of antibody often provides key defenses against microbial invasion. Dimeric IgA is transported to mucosal surfaces from the lamina propria...

Info

Principle Drugs Administration

Practical Guidelines in Antiviral Therapy Ed. by Charles A.B. Boucher and George J. Galasso. 13 35 2002 Elsevier Science. Printed in the Netherlands. drug interaction (particularly with protease inhibitors), the importance of maintaining adequate drug levels at all times to prevent virus breakthrough, and the concept of 'pharmacological resistance' i.e. reservoirs and sanctuary sites not adequately targeted by drugs. This chapter will provide an overview of pharmacological principles relevant...

Median absolute RNA copy numbers

Turnover of HIV-1 in plasma. Median wildtype and resistant HIV-1 RNA concentrations in patients on Lamivudine monotherapy. HIV-1 RNA concentrations were determined using the HIV-1 Amplicor Monitor assay (Roche Diagnostics), The presence of Lamivudine resistance mutations (M184I an M184V) was determined using the point mutation assay. Figure demonstrates the rapid turnover of wildtype virus, being replaced in a few weeks by a lamivudine resistant virus population (M184V). 33 Figure 9....

Csf

Cerebrospinal fluids are analyzed when suspicion is risen concerning viral meningitis. Worldwide common agents of viral meningitis are Mumps and enteroviruses 41 . When suspicion is raised concerning viral encephalitis, analysis of CSF can also be of value, although sensitivity specificity might be lower as compared to the analysis of brain biopsies 42 . In case of HSV encephalitis, PCR on CSF has been shown to be equally sensitive to the analysis of brain biopsies 43 , Important agents include...