Info

Based on a geometric interpretation of the differential equation and its solution, an interpretation that is very helpful for visualizing the solution method for two-dimensional problems but difficult to use in higher dimensions, i.e., for structured models. Cauchy's method, on the other hand, is more abstract and easily generalized to any number of dimensions. Both methods will be described in this chapter, and, to become fully comfortable with the methods, the reader is urged to study both to...

Z 1m2 m232

The reason for division by a3 is that it renders the skewness dimensionless. If a distribution is symmetric, it has zero skewness if it has a tail at values greater than its maximum, it has positive skewness if the tail is at values less than the maximum, it has negative skewness. Finally, the kurtosis is defined in terms of the fourth centered moment as f A , 4 M4 - 4MM3 + 6M2M9 - 3M4 y2 (z-Mi)4 f (z, t) dz a4 - 3 - -21 3 2 1 2 4-L - 3 The reason for the -3 term in the definition is that it...

Age

Figure 4.16 Initial solution domains obtained with control points at ages 3 and 5. A repetitive structure arises after time 9. The vertical arrows indicate points where a domain boundary bifurcates to create two new boundaries. One, a straight line continuation of the old boundary represents cells that have not divided another, starting at age zero, represents cells that have divided. Figure 4.16 Initial solution domains obtained with control points at ages 3 and 5. A repetitive structure...