3D Brain Anatomy Models

Flash Brain Anatomy

This course gives you access to a full online course and software to learn more about the brain than you ever thought possible in a short amount of time. This software contains detailed, 3D brain models, animations to display concepts, hundreds of educational courses, a neuroanatomy atlas, and compatibility with most web browsers. You will also have access to a full online suite of tutors. Neuroanatomy is one of the hardest parts of anatomy to learn, and learning the brain will really be a lot easier if you had a detailed model to base your knowledge off. This software makes the brain as simple as possible, while also giving you a way to learn it throughly. This model simplifies a very complex subject that most people struggle with Don't be one of the people that doesn't know what to do with the brain model! This course is designed to teach you everything about the brain while keeping the lessons manageable and learning at your own pace.

Flash Brain Anatomy Overview

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Newer cognitive approaches

There are several reasons why cognitive neuroscience has taken off so quickly. One is the development of sophisticated brain imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). These techniques allow scientists to peer into the human brain and observe it in action as never before. For the first time, the goal of identifying specific brain pathways linked to particular thoughts, feelings, and behaviors seems more like science than science fiction. It is little wonder that scientists are excited. Today, many are trying to develop psychological models of thought processes that are consistent with what is known about the structure and function of the nervous system.

Sources for Further Study

Clinical Neuroanatomy Made Ridiculously Simple. Miami MedMaster, 2000. One of a series of books intended to help students in the medical professions by presenting an abbreviated version of various medical subjects. The use of mnemonic devices, humor, and case studies makes the book accessible to a college-educated audience. Hendleman, Walter J. Atlas of Functional Neuroanatomy. Boca Raton, Fla. CRC Press, 2000. Presents a visual tour of the brain through drawings, photographs, and computer-generated illustrations. Three-dimensional images of the brain can be observed by using the accompanying CD-ROM. Kalat, James W. Biological Psychology. 8th ed. Belmont, Calif. Thomson Wadsworth, 2004. A top-selling book in the area of physiological psychology. While intended for college students, this engaging, easy-to-read text is accessible to general audiences. Two chapters contain excellent overviews of brain anatomy and functioning. Ornstein, Robert. The Right Mind Making...

Historical Introduction

Amebas from dust in 1913 and identified them as Amoeba polyphagus. Page (1967) redescribed this ameba as Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Sir Aldo Castellani (1930) also isolated an ameba which was found as a contaminant in his yeast culture, and this ameba was later named as Acanthamoeba castellanii. The pathogenic potential of Acanthamoeba was demonstrated by Culbertson et al. (1958), when they isolated an ameba that occurred as a contaminant in monkey kidney cell cultures during the production of the poliomyelitis vaccine. This isolate is now named as Acanthamoeba culbertsoni. However, it was Fowler and Carter (1965) from Adelaide, Australia, who demonstrated for the first time that these small free-living amebas can cause human disease leading to death. The ameba isolated by them from human brain is now designated Naegleria fowleri. Balamuthia mandrillaris, the third ameba known to cause human disease (Visvesvara et al., 1993), was first isolated in 1986 from the brain of a mandrill baboon...

The Biopsychosocial Development of Individuals

We next present a short survey of the well-established correlations between psychosocially manifested behavioral development and systematic changes of (1) cortical neuroanatomy as manifested in the experience-dependent increase of cortico-cortical connections, and (2) cortical functioning as manifested in systematic changes of EEG amplitude, wave frequency, coherence, and dimensional complexity. We then discuss the functional significance of such parallel developmental changes for understanding changes in accessibility to autobiographic memory contents from early to later developmental stages (childhood amnesia), as well as from sleep to wakefulness and the opposite (dream recall). Developmental Changes in Cortical Neuroanatomy

Integration And Future Directions

A third point of convergence rests in the effects of comparable experimental manipulations on modulations of the ERPs and activation of functional neuroanatomy during prospective remembering. For instance, Simons et al. (2005) observed that increasing the complexity of the intention led to greater activation within the right hemisphere for Brodmann's area 6. Consistent with this finding, evidence from a study using ERPs revealed a sustained modulation extending from the right frontal to right parietal regions that increased in amplitude with the complexity of the prospective cue-intention associations (West, Wymbs, et al., 2003). A final point of convergence reflects activity associated with processes that serve to monitor the environment for the occurrence of a prospective cue such as checking (Guynn, 2003). Supporting the existence of such a process, DeBruycker et al. (2005) reported that there was greater activity in extrastriate cortex for ongoing activity stimuli in a prospective...

Central Nervous System

The brain is subdivided into four major functional areas. The cerebrum, the largest portion of the brain, regulates sensory and motor functions. The convolutions characteristic of the human brain represent the physical appearance of the cerebrum. The brain stem connects the brain with the spinal cord, carrying out both sensory and motor functions. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus, the relay center for sensory functions entering the cerebrum, and the hypothalamus, which controls much of the peripheral nervous system activity and regulates endocrine processes. The fourth portion of the brain is the cerebellum, the rear of the brain where voluntary muscle activity is controlled.

Oxytocin And Argininevasopressin

AVP has prominent roles in controlling fluid balance via its effects on the kidney and regulating blood pressure via its vasoconstrictive effects on blood vessels, and can directly promote the sensation of thirst. AVP also promotes the release of ACTH from the anterior pituitary in the presence of CRF, and is released following stressful stimuli 116 . In humans, oxytocin is predominantly involved in controlling smooth muscle contraction during both breast-feeding and parturition (myometrium). In rodents, oxytocin promotes a number of reproductive (grooming, arousal, lordosis, orgasm, nesting, birthing) and maternal behaviours. Although there are marked species differences in the effects of oxytocin, central infusion of this peptide in females of a monogamous prairie vole species promotes lifelong pair bonding in the absence of mating. Furthermore, pair bonding in this species, which normally accompanies mating, can be blocked by oxytocin antagonists, thus implying a key role for...

Plain Transmission Imaging

Historically, the first medical ultrasonic images to be made were acoustic analogies of the plain X-ray transmission shadowgraphs. These were trans-skull views of the human brain, using quartz crystals as projector and receiver, and were claimed at the time to demonstrate the outlines of the ventricles (Dussik et al. 1942, 1947). It is now known, however, that there are two major sources of artefact that arise in this type of imaging, and that the Dussiks' valiant efforts were dominated by these. In the first place (and a problem that is particularly acute in trans-skull work), velocity inhomogeneity between different tissues gives rise to refraction artefacts. This problem can now, to some extent, be overcome by recording only the first arrival signal at each point in the image, thus discriminating against non-rectilinear ray paths.

Vascular Diseases 941 Introduction

Body fluids, such as cerebral fluids, provide good opportunities for the investigation of brain injury. Maurer et al. (2003) analysed the proteome of human brain microdialysate, a fluid that allows neurotransmitter release and metabolic products to be monitored in stroke patients. The microdialysate obtained from the non-infarcted hemisphere of three stroke patients was analysed by 2-DE. They identified 27 proteins, among them 17 already previously described in the CSF and ten uniquely found in the microdialysate. These last ten proteins could potentially be used, after validation in more easily obtained plasma, as biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis or follow-up of stroke patients.

The Genetic Connection

The human brain is an expensive tool with a huge proportion (40 and higher) of human genes involved in constructing and functionally maintaining the CNS (142). The information from the human genome project will accelerate our knowledge of normal brain function as well as the identification of the genes involved in neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. A list of genes responsible for some forms of familial (inherited) AD or representing factors increasing susceptibility to AD are listed in Table 10.

Human Factors Engineering

Another field which applies the findings of experimental sensory psychologists is called human-factors engineering. People who design complicated instrument panels (for example, in jet cockpits or nuclear reactors) must have an understanding of what kinds of stimuli will elicit attention, what will be irritating, and what will fade unnoticed into the background. Using knowledge of how sound is transmitted and how the human brain perceives sound, human-factors engineers have designed police and ambulance sirens which make one type of sound while the vehicle is moving quickly (the air-raid-type wailing sound) and another while the vehicle is moving slowly, as through a crowded intersection (alternating pulses of different pitches). These two types of sounds maximize the likelihood that the siren will be noticed in the different environmental settings. Research by human-factors engineers has also prompted many communities to change the color of fire engines from red to yellow because red...

Neurodegenerative Disorders

The systematic proteomic analysis of human or animal brains is of great relevance to neurological diseases. Such studies provide a detailed understanding of the normal and healthy state, and allow comparisons with affected patients or animal models of disease. The first published proteomic studies used 2-DE to produce reference maps of human, mouse and rat brain proteomes. For example, more than 400 proteins were identified from mouse brain (Klose et al. 2002) and more than 300 proteins were identified from human brain (Lubec et al. 2003). The proteins identified corresponded to various functional

An Example of Radiolabelling a New Class of Drug Candidates

What is the best approach to developing a new drug and a new radioligand Some in vitro screening is necessary because of the large number of drug candidates being produced. Imaging can certainly play a part in the screening of the final candidates. If the target system is new, then each drug candidate must be radiolabelled. For example, Novo Nordisk prepared a series of muscarinic agonists, which were tetrahydropyridine thiadiazoyl derivatives. We radiolabelled a number of these with 18F and tested them in vitro and in vivo for M2 selectivity. The primary focus of our work has been the development of M2 subtype-selective cholinergic ligands, based on the observation that this subtype is lost in the cerebral cortex in Alzheimer's disease 30-32 . Post-mortem quantification of muscarinic subtypes indicated a selective loss of M2 subtype in the hippocampus and a trend toward a decrease in cortical regions while there was an increase of the M2 subtype in the stria-tum as reported by...

Brain Imaging Studies

Modern imaging techniques enabling the visualization of in vivo brain structure, neurochemistry and function have literally opened up the living human brain for scientific study. While brain characteristics from postmortem tissue in schizophrenia have been described throughout the twentieth century, the translation of abnormal tissue characteristics into living dysfunction has been difficult. Neuropathology studies often focus on end-of-life neural changes in an illness, whereas in vivo brain imaging studies can be targeted to persons with early and still active illness. Nonetheless, resolution is at the cellular and molecular level with neuropathological techniques, whereas it is only at a 2- to 4-mm resolution with in vivo imaging techniques altogether, making these two techniques highly complementary. While in other body organs, like the heart, the mechanisms of function are reasonably clear from structure, the brain is more subtle in its translation of structure into function....

Lewins principle of contemporaneity

The question remains, however, as to whether Lewin's notion of the psychological past is an adequate account of memory. Researchers who have studied such mental disorders as post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) would argue that Lewin's theory does not allow for the effects of traumatic experiences on human personality. Since the early 1980s, neurologists studying the formation of memory traces in the human brain have discovered that traumatic memories are formed in a very different way from normal memories. The types of childhood memories that Lewin listed on occasion as examples of the unimportance of the past in a person's present life space are all pleasant or neutral memories.

Physiological Evidence of the Disease Process in the Brain

Psychiatric Rehabilitation

Using these various brain scans, the living brains of people with serious mental illnesses have been compared to other individuals, of the same age and sex, without mental illnesses. Based on the differences found between people with serious mental illnesses and those without them, it has become increasingly clear that the brains of people who have a serious mental illness have both a different neuroanatomy and different neural functioning than people who do not have a major psychiatric disorder (Buchanan & Carpenter, 1997).

From The Gateway Hypothesis Back To Prospective Memory

These results indicate that there may be a general principle for the functional organization of at least some parts of human brain BA 10. This view receives further support from a meta-analysis conducted by Gilbert, Spengler, Simons, Frith, and Burgess (2006). They analyzed the reaction times to paradigms from 104 PET fMRI studies, yielding 133 independent contrasts. The tasks that had provoked these activations came from a wide range of functions (e.g., memory, mentalizing, perception, and PM). A fascinating general principle emerged. Gilbert, Spengler, Simons, Frith, et al. (2006) found that reaction times to tasks that had provoked lateral BA 10 activations tended to be slower than reaction times in whatever control task had been used. However, reaction times to tasks provoking medial BA 10 activations were, if anything, faster than the control task. The pattern occurred regardless of the type of task under study, and thus seems to be a general principle of BA 10 neuroimaging...

Unprocessed And Processed Neurotrophins Mediate Opposing Biological Action

All neurotrophins are generated from protein precursors that contain at their N-termini hydrophobic signal peptides followed by pro-regions domains. Their mature forms share approximate similar molecular sizes and their primary sequence identities are close to 50 61 . The intracellular cleavage of the pro-neurotrophins is mediated by Furin, PACE4 and or PC5 6-B 61 . To produce the active forms of these growth factors the cleavage of their precursors takes place following pairs of the basic amino acids motif Arg-X-(Lys Arg)-Arg, where X is Ser, Val and Arg for proNGF proNT-4 5, proBDNF and proNT-3 respectively 61, 62 . Recently, several groups explored the biological functions of precursor forms of neurotrophins 62 . Analysis of human brain revealed the predominance of the Pro-NGF form. Using pro-NGF mutant with altered furin-cleavage site 3 revealed that the unprocessed pro-NGF is able to bind to p75NTR-expressing cells but not to TrkA-expressing cells. Accordingly, this pro-NGF...

The Urethra And Associate Continence Structures

The innervation for this continence region is somewhat complex. Dual innervation of the rhabdosphincter has been suggested by several investigators.25,27 Recent work by Steiner and associates using fresh cadaver dissections has provided greater insight regarding the neuroanatomy of the urethra and suggests some surgical modifications that may aid in optimizing continence in surgical patients.28,29 In general, the autonomic component of the urethra is derived from the pelvic nerve and inferior hypogastric plexus. The somatic component is provided by the pudendal nerve. A perineal component, the perineal nerve, provides somatic innervation for the urinary rhabdosphincter. Additionally, as the pudendal

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

To date little fMRI research has been done in psychiatric disorders besides schizophrenia. In order to examine the neuroanatomy of major depression, Beauregard et al. 49 performed an fMRI study using an emotion-activation paradigm. Subjects were exposed to an emotionally laden film aimed at inducing a transient state of sadness. Patients with unipolar depression as well as normal subjects had significant activation in the medial and inferior prefrontal cortices, the middle temporal cortex, the cerebellum and the caudate. The depressed patients exhibited significantly greater activation in the left medial prefrontal cortex and in the right cingulate gyrus compared with controls, indicating alterations in these regions in the pathophysiology of depressive states.

The Contribution of Molecular Biology

Tions, and affects it sets in motion-may stably modify the expression of gene proteins and their fixation in the synapses, creating a situation of neuronal and synaptic plasticity as the organic basis for remembering an experience. These observations must be extrapolated cautiously to the human brain, but their main interest lies in the fact that speech itself-a basic tool of psychoanalysis-may act in the synapses by working through the genes, becoming responsible for plastic modifications that might form an anatomo-functional basis for personality changes in the person under analysis.

Models of Emotional Lateralization Based on the Componential and Hierarchical Organization of Emotions

The model assuming a major role of the right hemisphere in the schematic and of the left hemisphere in the conceptual level of emotional processing is consistent with other general models of functional lateralization of the human brain, which concern (a) the prevalent involvement of the left hemisphere in general cognitive and control functions, which is usually acknowledged by most authors and (b) the greater role of the right hemisphere in other kinds of automatic activities. As for the leading role of the left hemisphere in cognitive and control functions, I will briefly quote here only the classical views of Luria 60 and some recent studies by Gazzaniga et al. 61, 62 on this subject. According to Luria 60 , the development of language in the left hemisphere has greatly increased not only the conceptual skills, but also the control capacities of this hemisphere, because of the regulatory role played by language on various aspects of human behavior. These statements are consistent...

Repression as a Specialized Defense Mechanism

Freud clearly emphasized the role of repression in reducing psychological conflict and anxiety, and thus also emphasized the emotional content of the memories being repressed. Based on this, one might argue that because our experiments do not present psychologically threatening material, the effects cannot reflect true repression. It is important, however, to distinguish the mechanism underlying repression from the use to which that mechanism is put psychological defense. I have argued 10 that the mechanism underlying repression, by virtue of acting on memorial representations in the human brain, must be considered a cognitive process, and, as such, might reflect general mechanisms used in a range of circumstances. In particular, repression may reflect the action of executive control processes, directed at declarative memories. If so, one can decouple the study of the cognitive mechanism (executive control over memory retrieval) from the particular psychological uses to which that...

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Brain Has Structure Magnet

The NMR phenomenon was first used to examine magnetic resonance spectroscopic (MS) properties of compounds in solution. In the 1960s, superconducting magnets and more efficient computers were developed. When they were combined with the image reconstruction techniques developed by Godfrey Hounsfield for X-ray tomography, the first in vivo magnetic resonance images could be reconstructed, which took place in the early 1970s 13 . Several kinds of MRI data can be acquired without exposing subjects to ionizing radiation or radioactive isotopes. Initially MRI was mainly used for visualizing the structure of the brain. In the early 1990s, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was developed for the recording of rapid changes in local cerebral blood flow. The term functional MRI is related to neurovascular coupling, a phenomenon first reported by Roy Sherrington in 1894, who reported that local variations of functional neuronal activity are followed by local changes in blood flow. fMRI...

Specific Brain Imaging Methods Computed Tomography

CT scanning as hitherto applied by psychiatric research cannot be of diagnostic value as a single technique in psychiatry, even in dementia. In the future more refined analyses of brain morphology and the establishment of standardized quantitative reference values for various brain structures will be necessary before brain morphological dimensions as measured by CT can be introduced in psychiatric diagnostics. For this to be accomplished, the development of standardized databases for various features of human brain morphology will have to be developed. Comprehensive methods of assessing routine CT scans have recently been developed, allowing the pooling of data obtained by different research groups 10 .

Evolutionary Origin of Binary Decision System and Pharmaceutics

Human brain can be regarded as a device to transform a stream of sensory information from dual world, external and internal, into improved behavioral response and world image. Depending on the urgency to respond, information is immediately converted to instinctive intuitive (preconscious) response, while some information is momentarily stored as a short-term memory and elicits slowly developing change in the internal attitude conductive of emotional (subconscious) response. The information can acquire an adequate conceptual(conscious) meaning only as far as it requires a critical evaluation and updating of

Mild Cognitive Impairment

Studies of cognitive changes across the life span must distinguish between normal gradual change in the elderly and change that is associated with disordered functioning. Studies must also respect the complexity of the human brain. Morton Hunt notes that cognitive scientists have concluded that there may be 100 billion neurons in the interior of the brain. Each of these neurons may be interconnected to hundreds of others by anywhere from one thousand to ten thousand synapses, or relay points. This may enable the average healthy person to accumulate five hundred times as much informa tion as is contained in the entire Encyclopedia Britannica, or 100 trillion bits of information. The circuitry in one human brain is probably sixty times the complexity of the entire United States telephone system. Given this complexity, even the daily estimated loss of 100,000 brain cells from the aging process may leave human beings capable of sound cognitive functioning well into old age.

Series Preface

Each volume in the series consists of a few substantial chapters on a particular topic. In some cases, the topics will be ones of traditional interest for which there is a substantial body of data and theory, such as auditory neuroanatomy (Vol. 1) and neurophysiology (Vol. 2). Other volumes in the series deal with topics that have begun to mature more recently, such as development, plasticity, and computational models of neural processing. In many cases, the series editors are joined by a co-editor having special expertise in the topic of the volume.

Dreams

Furthermore, it has recently been demonstrated that stimuli to a cortical area of the human brain have different interhemispheric and intracortical spread depending on whether the subject is a synchronous phase of sleep or awake 60 . There is a clear relationship between these different functional states of the cerebral cortex and the different states of consciousness that characterize wakefulness and sleep. While awake, activation of a limited area of cortex spreads through cortical areas of the ispilateral and contralateral hemispheres, whereas in sleep (in which dreaming occurs) this spread of activation is inhibited and the stimulus remains confined to the area stimulated. This demonstrates a different functional processuality of the neocortical layer and highlights the difference between the two states of

Volume Preface

However, it is also possible to observe more general physiological processes in the human auditory system. In Chapter 5, Griffiths explains how modern brain-imaging techniques (PET, fMRI, EEG, and MEG) have enabled researchers to probe the regions responsible for pitch processing in the human brain. In Chapter 6, de Cheveigne provides a detailed taxonomy of pitch models using a rich historical and conceptual context. He highlights the commonalities between models and outlines the bases for selecting between them. Pitch perception for listeners with hearing impairment and with cochlear implants is discussed in Chapter 7 by Moore and Carlyon. In addition to the clinical benefits, such as the design of prostheses, readers of this chapter will be aware of just how much we can learn about normal pitch mechanisms by examining the consequences of disrupted auditory processing.

Science and beyond

He tried another approach with a determined effort to examine what shape the theory of mental functioning takes if one introduces quantitative considerations, a sort of economics of nerve forces 6 . This refers of course to his Project for a Scientific Psychology 7 , which he abandoned after much frenetic effort with the words to Fliess to me it appears to have been a kind of madness 6 . However, as Kanzer observed,the project is a set of neurologically clad psychological propositions drawn from clinical observation 8 . And Mancia 8a pointed out that the language of the Project is only apparently physiological. Substantially it is a metaphorical language Solms and Saling endorse this view, pointing out that Freud retained many of the ideas in the Project but none of these was based on the neurophysiology or neuroanatomy of the day 9 . Of greater significance for the future of psychoanalysis was that, by 1893, Freud had rejected first Meynert's and then Charcot's views on the cortical...

Neurons

About two weeks after conception, a fluid-filled cavity called the neural tube begins to form on the back of the human embryo. This neural tube will sink under the surface of the skin, and the two major structures of the central nervous system (CNS) will begin to differentiate. The top part of the tube will enlarge and become the brain the bottom part will become the spinal cord. The cavity will persist through development and become the fluid-filled central canal of the spinal cord and the four ventricles of the brain. The ventricles and the central canal contain cerebrospinal fluid, a clear plasmalike fluid that supports and cushions the brain and also provides nutritive and eliminative functions for the CNS. At birth the average human brain weighs approximately 12 ounces (350 grams), a quarter of the size of the average adult brain, which is about 3 pounds (1,200 to 1,400 grams). Development of the brain in the first year is rapid, with the brain doubling in weight in the first six...

Summary

It has been estimated that the adult human brain contains 100 billion neurons, forming more than 13 trillion connections with one another. These connections are constantly changing, depending on how much learning is occurring and on the health of the brain. In this dynamic system of different neurological areas concerned with diverse functions, the question arises of how a sense of wholeness and stability emerges. In other words, where is the

Alan M Rosenwasser

The last few years have seen dramatic progress in the elucidation of the mammalian circadian timing system at the molecular, cellular, neural systems, and behavioral levels. These advances have led to improved understanding of the neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and molecular neurobiology of the circadian pacemaker, as well as the synchronization (entrainment) of the pacemaker by both photic and nonphotic inputs. In this chapter, the author reviews how recent research in these areas has revealed the structure and function of the mammalian circadian timing system, and emphasizes how advances at disparate analytical levels are converging on an integrated view of this critical biobehavioral regulatory system.

Immunoregulation

But the list of potential complications associated with the clinical use of TRPV1 antagonists does not stop here. Expression of TRPV1 is up-regulated in the rat stomach after chemical (HCl) injury this mechanism is supposed to be protective against mucosal damage 166 . In fact, capsazepine was shown to aggravate HCl-induced gastric ulcers 167 . This phenomenon may prevent the oral use of TRPV1 antagonists that are absorbed in the stomach. Furthermore, TRPV1 is present on rat islet beta cells, where it plays a role in insulin secretion 168 . TRPV1 is also expressed in human brain endothelium where its function remains to be determined 169 . Last, an area of special concern is the enigmatic presence of TRPV1 throughout the whole neuroaxis of the rat 170 . Recently, it was suggested that TRPV1 antagonists may impact on behaviours including anxiety and affect 171 .

Jon S Simons

Most recently, there is early evidence that suggests a special role for one subregion of the frontal lobes area 10. This region is also rather confusingly referred to in the literature as Brodmann's area 10, rostral prefrontal cortex, anterior prefrontal cortex, frontopolar cortex, or the frontal pole. This is a very interesting brain region. It is very large in humans In volumetric terms, it is probably the largest single architectonic region of the frontal lobes (Christoff et al., 2001), covering approximately 25 to 30 cubic centimeters (Semendeferi, Armstrong, Schleicher, Zilles, & Van Hoesen, 2001 see Figure 11.1). It is also in relative terms much larger in the human brain than in other animals, including the great apes (Semendeferi et al., 2001 but see Holloway, 2002). Additionally, this region is probably the last to achieve myelination, and it has been argued that tardily myelinating areas engage in complex functions highly related to the organism's experience (Fuster,...

Conclusions

The brain imaging methods outlined in this chapter have brought new dimensions to research in psychiatry. The ability to examine structural, gross functional and neurosignalling mechanisms in the living human brain has allowed the initiation of an experimental analysis of brain-mind interaction in individual living human subjects. In disorders previously thought to be exclusively of a functional nature, such as schizophrenia, subtle alterations of brain structure have been consistently demonstrated. The functional imaging methods (fMRI, SPECT and PET) have demonstrated a variety of perturbations of functional activation levels during The further use of these methods can be expected to dramatically alter and develop our conception of the biological substrates behind psychological phenomena produced by the human brain. This knowledge, when used in further systematic studies on all the different diagnostic categories of psychiatric disorders, will be a most fruitful dimension of clinical...

Robert West

A review of the literature reveals that progress in identifying the neural architecture of prospective memory has been made in studies using two complimentary methodologies. Studies using functional neuroimaging methods (i.e., positron emission tomography PET and functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI ) have served to identify some of the functional neuroanatomy that is related to the maintenance of intentions during performance of an ongoing activity (Burgess, Quayle, & Frith, 2001 Okuda et al., 1998 Simons, Scholvinck, Gilbert, Frith, & Burgess, 2005) and neural activity that is related to processes that are engaged when a candidate prospective cue is encountered in the environment (De Bruycker, Verhoef,

ACC and Implied Pain

This research was supported by a Grant from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (No. 16203037) and Nissan Science Foundation (29th) to N.O. This chapter is based on an invited lecture on A word expressing affective pain activates the anterior cingulate cortex in the human brain An fMRI study at the international conference on Neuroscience and Psychoanalysis Memory, emotion and dream, held at Genoa in November, 2004. Thanks are due to Mizuki Kaneda for assistance during data analysis.

Neural Cell Number

The adult human brain contains approximately 1012 neurons and 10 to 15 times that number of glial cells. Each neuron has, on average, 10,000 connections (from a few thousand to over 100,000), resulting in an extraordinarily large total number (about 1015). It is through these connections that the nervous system exerts its essential role in directly communicating with the internal and external environment, and, as an intermediary, between the two environments. CNS cells include neurons, and glial and endothelial cells (Box 2).

Beyond Toxicity

For accessible targets such as blood pressure or heart rate, these concepts are not new. The techniques of external, noninvasive imaging now permit realtime monitoring of targets such as in situ regions of the human brain that were previously considered inaccessible. Fowler et al. (11) used positron emission tomography (PET) to study inhibition of monoamine oxidase, type B (MAO-B) by lazabemide (Figure 31.6). A dose of 25 mg twice a day inhibited most MAO-B activity, and doubling the dose to 50 mg abolished all detectable activity. Also, brain activity for MAO-B had returned to baseline values within 36 hours of

Surgery

The use of sharply focused beams to produce lesions in organs at depth within the body without damage to intervening tissue was initially investigated in the brain because interest was expressed in the use of these lesions for experimental neuroanatomy. Other organs that have been studied since include the liver, prostate, spinal cord, kidney and eye.

Dynamics

In the past decade, an explosion of advances in human brain imaging techniques have pushed analysis of metabolic or blood-oxygenation levels in the brain to the forefront of human neuroscience research. In contrast, the popularity of elect-roencepholography (EEG) has waned, largely because the majority of EEG studies still analyze average electrical potential time series from single

Serotonin

Separate receptor subtypes show different distribution patterns within the cortex, both within and across species. For example, autoradiographic mapping of the human brain has revealed a high density of 5-HT-1A receptors in cortical layers I and II, a low density of 1C receptors throughout the cortex, and no 1B binding sites at all (Pazos et al., 1987). In the primary visual cortex of the rhesus monkey, both 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors are found in high concentrations in sublayer IVc beta, and 5-HT1 receptor density is also high in layers III, V, VI and subdivisions of layer IV (Lidow et al., 1989b).

Kuei Yuan TSENG

Goldman-Rakic, Professor of Neuroscience at Yale University School of Medicine, died on July 31, 2003. She was a world-renowned neuroscientist specializing in the study of the functions of the prefrontal cortex, the most important cortical structure for understanding human beings. Since 1979, she had been a professor at Yale University School of Medicine, where Professor John Fulton and Dr. Carlyle Jacobsen first started experimental studies on the prefrontal cortex using primates, and found in 1930s that the bilateral lesion of the prefrontal cortex impairs delayed-response performances. Until the early 1960s, Yale University School of Medicine was a world center for the prefrontal research. When Pat was invited to the Fulton Lecture held at Yale School of Medicine in the mid 80s, she told the audience about the legacy of Prof. John Fulton and expressed her hope that she would once again make the Section of Neuroanatomy (now Department of...

Mind Maps

Mind Map Drug Industry

Making associations between one image or word is an important activity of the brain when a person is thinking. Each image or word has innumerable links to other words and images leading from one idea to another. Mind maps, developed by Tony Buzan, are designed to model the way the human brain works, i.e. by associative and linear processes, and so assist in the generation of new ideas C-18 .

Ganglion

The reverberating Papez circuit (modified from Manter and Gatz's ESSENTIALS OF CLINICAL NEUROANATOMY AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, by S. Gilman and S. Winans Newman, 7th Edition, 1987), believed to be involved in the emotional content of conscious thought processes. It provides intercommunication between hippocampus, hypothalamus, thalamus and cerebral cortex. Note the input of the olfactory system, which also plays a role in emotion. This is evident if you have ever seen two dogs sniffing one another or noted the prominence of the perfume industry in major department stores.

Emotions and Memory

It is now certain that early environmental influences can affect neuronal plasticity 22 . The human brain stem is fully functional at birth. It responds to vital vegetative and motor functions. The limbic system (hypothalamus, amygdala, septum, cingulum and hippocampus) controls hunger and thirst and is responsible for the experience and expression of emotions including pleasure, anger, fear, joy, and desire for emotional social contact. Early environmental experiences can, therefore, influence these specific neural networks, affecting their ability to select and control behavior. For this reason early social, emotional and environmental influences can exert significant effects on the organization of the brain and on intellectual, social and emotional aspects of development.

Scientific Value

Traditionally, intelligence quotient (IQ) tests measure two kinds of intelligence one related to verbal skills and one related to spatial skills. Newer theories and tests attempt to address the possibility that there are dozens of different kinds of intelligence. The newer tests may help to identify special talents that may otherwise go unrecognized, undeveloped, and unrewarded in people who are not especially good at tasks measured by the more traditional tests. The new theories of multiple intelligences are also being used in the field of artificial intelligence to develop computer and robotic systems which utilize less sequential processing and more parallel systems or netlike processing, more like the human brain.