Sgtcs

New seizure type developed (motor partial Szs), frequency unchanged Course of epilepsy in 5 patients with chronic epilepsy, followed for at least 12 months after an episode of convulsive status. The duration of status is given approximately (to nearest 6 h). Seizure frequencies are categorised into < l month 1-3 month < 3 month). Patients 1 and 4 had at least one documented previous episode of status). Key M male F female CPS complex partial seizures SPS simple partial seizures SGTCS...

Lobe epilepsy

Asia Pitkanenli3'*, Jari Nissinen 1, Jaak Nairismagi2, Katarzyna Lukasiuk 1, Olli HJ. Grohn2, Riitta Miettinen3,4 and Risto Kauppinen2 ' Epilepsy Research Laboratory and 2 NMR Research Group, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70 211 Kuopio, Finland 3 Department of Neurology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FIN-70 211 Kuopio, Finland 4 Department of Neurology and Neurosciences, University of Kuopio, RO. Box 1627, FIN-70 211...

Cladp

Typical seizure-like events in an organotypic hippocampal slice culture, prepared at around P7 and studied about 1 week later. IBP, initial bursting discharge TLP, tonic-like discharge phase CLADP, clonic-like after discharge period fp, field potential recording. The Ca signal was linearized by us using the Nernst equation. Fig. 2. Typical seizure-like events in an organotypic hippocampal slice culture, prepared at around P7 and studied about 1 week later. IBP, initial bursting...

Ca3

Example of propidium iodide staining in an untreated and a-tocopherol-treated slice culture after 2 h of status epilepticus. Note neuroprotective effect of the free radical scavenger. Fig. 6. Example of propidium iodide staining in an untreated and a-tocopherol-treated slice culture after 2 h of status epilepticus. Note neuroprotective effect of the free radical scavenger. seems to result in damage of mitochondrial function as indicated by the reduced capability to take up Ca, the...

Calcium and mitochondrial swelling

In a series of talks in 1980, I outlined for the first time the hypothesis that mitochondrial poisoning by calcium overload was the critical link between the burst discharges and ischemic cell change (see Meldrum, 1981, 1983). This hypothesis derived from the observations of Schanne et al. (1979) in liver and Wrogemann and Pena (1976) in muscle. In collaboration with Griffiths and Evans we used the oxalate pyroantimonate procedure to visualize free calcium in EM images, during the course of...

Introduction

The importance of reliable counting methods in neuroscience has increased over the past decade, and has received significant discussion in a literature that is surprisingly extensive. (Recent references include * Correspondence to R.W. Guillery, Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, 1300 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706, USA. Tel. + 1-608-263-4763 Fax +1-608-262-7036 E-mail rguiller facstaff.wisc.edu ** Responsible for the electron microscopic studies....

The Meyer hypothesis

The introduction of the en bloc resection of the anterior temporal lobe by Murray Falconer provided material suitable for detailed neuropathological study. The initial analysis of this material by Cavanagh and Meyer (1956) is a landmark. It showed that laminar necrosis was widespread in the temporal cortex. It also noted the striking clinical correlation between mesial temporal sclerosis and a history of an early episode of status epilepticus or prolonged febrile convulsions (11 out of 17...

Incisural sclerosis

Earle et al. (1953) used suction to remove mesial temporal structures as a treatment for drug-resistant complex partial seizures and described the frequent occurrence (100 of 157 cases) of sclerotic lesions in the medial tip of the temporal lobe (uncus). They called this pathology 'incisural sclerosis' to indicate that it arose from herniation of the medial border of the anterior temporal lobe over the tentorium causing ischemic lesions (through compression of branches of the anterior choroidal...

Ect

Fig. 1. (A) Diagrammatic representation of some of the biochemical, anatomic and functional changes seen after seizures in a variety of electrical and chemoconvulsant animal models. (B) Diagrammatic representation of changes seen in ECT models (indicated in green). Note that many of the lasting changes have not been reported after single or repeated ECT. Fig. 2. Theoretical representation of the relationship between various documented changes occurring after seizures. (A) Parallel model...

List of Contributors

Adelson, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 900951769, USA F. Andermann, Montreal Neurological Hospital and Institute, McGill University, 3801 University St., Montreal, PQ H3A 2T5, Canada D.L. Arnold, Epilepsy Clinic and Brain Imaging Center, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, 3801 University Street, Montreal, PQ H3A 2B4, Canada B.K. August, Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, 1300 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706, USA J.K....

Months after onset of seizures

Seizure frequency as a function of time after kainate treatment. These data are based on a population of 47 kainate-treated rats that had at least one seizure every 30 days after their initial seizure, and that were euthanized > 4 months after kainate treatment. (A) Graph of seizure frequency for all 47 rats. At later periods, fewer kainate-treated rats were available for the analysis, because they were either used for experiments or died. (B) In this graph, seizure frequency is...

Ca4

Method of Reference Method of apoptotic Time after Comments Regions expressing apoptotic Fujikawa et al., 2000 TUNEL, EM, DNA 24 h, 72 h electrophoresis, H and E stain Kondratyev and Caspase-3 immuno., 24 h Gale, 2000 Hoechst and Texas Red DNA electrophoresis Pilocarpine Sankar et al., 1998 TUNEL, EM, DNA 24 h Fujikawa et al., 1999 TUNEL, EM, DNA 24 h, 72 h electrophoresis, H and E stain Roux et al., 1999 TUNEL and p75 1 day, 3 days necrotic cells can exhibit 'apoptotic' markers necrotic cells...

References

Abercrombie, M. (1946) Estimation of nuclear population from microtome sections. Anat. Rec., 94 239-247. Anker, R.L. and Cragg, B.G. (1974) Estimation of the number of synapses in a volume of nervous tissue from counts in thin sections by electron microscopy. J. Neurocytol., 3 725-735. Benes, F.M. and Lange, N. (2001) Two dimensional versus three dimensional cell counting a practical perspective. Trends Neurosci., 24 11-17. Bloom, F.E. and Aghajanian, G.K. (1968) Fine structural and...

Brian S Meldrum

GKT Department of Biomedical Sciences, Kings College, London, UK Abstract Selective neuronal loss following status epilepticus was first described just under 100 years ago. The acute pathology following status epilepticus was shown to be 'ischemic cell change' and was assumed to arise through hypoxia ischemia. Less than 30 years ago it was proposed, from experiments in primates, that the selective neuronal loss in hippocampus and cortex resulted from the abnormal electrical discharges....

Hannah R Cock

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK Abstract Studies in vitro and in other disease states where excitotoxicity is believed to be important have demonstrated that mitochondrial function is a critical determinant of cell death, reflecting key roles in intracellular calcium homeostasis, energy production and oxidative stress. Central to this is the process of mitochondrial permeability transition, for which there are numerous...

P Elyse Schauwecker

Department of Cell and Neurobiology, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9112, USA Abstract To elucidate the genetic influences contributing to susceptibility to seizure disorders, researchers have long used selected lines and inbred strains of rodents. In recent years, the use of genetically altered mice as models of complex human disease has revolutionized biomedical research into the genetics of disease pathogenesis and potential therapeutic...

Neuronal apoptosis after brief and prolonged seizures

Johan Bengzon1' , Paul Mohapel2, Christine T. Ekdahl2 and Olle Lindvall2 ' Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, 5-227 85 Lund, Sweden 2 Section of Restorative Neurology, Wallenberg Neuroscience Center, BMCA-11, S-221 84 Lund, Sweden Abstract Evidence has accumulated that apoptotic cell death contributes to brain damage following experimental seizures. A substantial number of degenerating neurons within limbic regions display morphological features of apoptosis following prolonged...

Albert J Becker Otmar D Wiestler and Ingmar Bliimcke

Department of Neuropathology, University of Bonn Medical Center, Bonn, Germany Abstract The human genome project is a milestone for molecular genetic studies on complex, sporadic disorders in the human central nervous system CNS . Functional analysis and tissue- cell-specific expression profiles will be of particular importance anticipating the magnitude of expressed genes in the brain and their dynamic epigenetic modifications. The recent progress in microarray technologies allows expression...

Does convulsive status epilepticus SE result in cerebral damage or affect the course of epilepsy the epidemiological

Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK The fact that convulsive status epilepticus SE can result in brain damage in experimental models has been irrefutably demonstrated, since the pioneering work of Meldrum and colleagues in the adolescent baboon Meldrum and Brierley, 1973 Meldrum and Horton, 1973 Meldrum et al 1973, 1974 Meldrum, 1997 . Numerous animal models, in which seizures produced either by chemical means or by electrical stimulation have...

For an adult brain

Rat Olfactory Bulb Anatomy

Lowenstein 2 1 Department of Neurology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-1687, USA 2 Harvard Medical School and Department of Neurology, Beth Israel-Deaconess Medical Center, 333 Brookline Avenue, Abstract The idea that neural stem cells may play a role in the pathophysiology or potential treatment of specific epilepsy syndromes is relatively new. This notion relates directly to advances in the field of stem cell biology over the past...

Nicolas G Bazan Bin Tu and Elena B Rodriguez de Turco

Cpla2 Signaling

Neuroscience Center of Excellence and Department of Ophthalmology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Abstract Glutamate, the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS, plays a central role in many neuronal functions, such as long-term potentiation, which is necessary for learning and memory formation. The fast excitatory glutamate neurotransmission is mediated by ionotropic receptors that include AMPA kainate and iV-methyl-D-aspartate NMDA receptors, while...

Jo A Del Rio and Carrolee Barlow

The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, The Laboratory of Genetics, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA Abstract It is sometimes assumed that because the brain is such a complex organ, experimental genomics methods are not directly applicable to neurobiological studies. In fact, it is because the brain and brain process are complex that it is even more important to apply methods that allow large numbers of genes to be monitored across a significant number of experiments....

Table 3

Experimental studies assessing neuronal loss after repeated brief seizures Sampled locations and results bold indicates loss or damage perforant path amygdala olfactory bulb 3-30 secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures 3-150 secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures 3 secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures 1 afterdischarge and 2-3 secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures 5-85 secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures 1-20 partial and secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures 5...