Cultural And Ethnic Issues In Attitudes Toward Persons With Disabilities

One of the implications of a supernatural etiology for chronic illness and disability is that the individual and or ancestors might have done something (consciously or unconsciously) to bring on the condition. Given this type of attribution for a disabling condition, one might expect less tolerance or more negative attitudes toward persons with disabilities among African Americans than among White Americans. An alternative explanation is that the person is not accountable for the illness or...

Chronic Disease Among African Americans

Statistics on the prevalence of chronic conditions among African Americans were obtained from the National Health Interview Survey. This survey included a random sample of African Americans. Data were collected from 1986-1990 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC , 1994). The age-adjusted prevalence of the leading chronic con- Prevalence for Selected Chronic Conditions for African American and White Men and Women, 1986-1990 Conditions African American White African American White...

Empowering African Americans Through Increasing Perceptions of Control and Selfefficacy Beliefs

In chapter 6, a rationale for the importance of psychological control and self-efficacy beliefs for enhancing outcomes for African Americans with chronic illnesses and disabilities was provided. As discussed in that chapter, perceptions of psychological control and self-efficacy beliefs are intrapersonal resources that can help one to achieve desired goals and to function adaptively. These intrapersonal resources are empowering for everyone and especially for individuals who may not have...

The Influence Of Culture On Beliefs About Health Illness And Disability

In a discussion of culture and health schemas, Landrine and Klonoff (1992) provide a review of how culture influences health-related schemas. While much of Landrine and Klonoff's review is centered around the influence of culture on health, illness, and disease, the literature can be extended to disability and chronic illness. In this review, Landrine and Klonoff analyze how culture influences health and illness schemas of ethnic and cultural groups in the United States and other countries and...

Intrapersonal Resources for Increasing Adaptive Functioning

One's cognitions (i.e., thoughts, beliefs, and ways of viewing the world) have a pervasive influence on behavior, including the experiencing of disabilities and chronic illnesses. These cognitions are conceptualized by the author as intrapersonal resources insofar as they allow us to use inner resources to help us function competently. Chapter 6 provides an examination of two intrapersonal resources as they impact functional and mental health outcomes for African Americans with chronic...

Individual Level Strategies

Efforts to increase consumer responsibility for health and rehabilitation utilization must be directed at the individual consumer. Increasing one's beliefs that one can successfully access and participate in appro priate health and rehabilitative services should be a desired individual goal. These beliefs may be more difficult to promote among those African Americans who have not had extensive experience with taking control. However, these beliefs can be learned. (Strategies for increasing...

Guided Mastery Experiences

One way to strengthen self-efficacy is through guided mastery experiences. This involves breaking a task into small, incremental steps that can be done within a relatively short period of time (Bandura, 1986). These tasks should be directed at achieving subgoals. For example sub-tasks related to meeting employment subgoals were described previously (i.e., schedule appointment, read help-wanted ads, learn to use public transportation, etc.). Once a subtask is accomplished, another is added until...

Coping Strategies

Coping strategies, as in the cases of self-efficacy and psychological control, are conceptualized in this chapter as interpersonal resources that can be used for maximizing adaptive functioning. Coping is defined as the process of managing external and internal demands that are appraised as exceeding the resources of the person. Coping consists of efforts, both action oriented and intrapsychic, used to manage, reduce, or minimize environmental and internal demands and conflicts Lazarus amp...