Brief Overview

Carl Gustaf Jung (1875-1961) is considered to be, together with Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, one of the three outstanding figures in the first generation of the psychoanalytic movement. Jung was the son of a Swiss Reformed pastor and spent all of his childhood and adolescence in Switzerland. He was trained as a medical doctor at the University of Basel. Originally intending to become a surgeon or internist, Jung decided to specialize in psychiatry within a year of the publication of Freud's...

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FairTest (National Center for Fair and Open Testing), 2 491, 492-493 false recollections, 1 250 family system theories, 1 82 Faraday, Ann, 1 227 Fechner, Gustav Theodor, 2 460-461 Federal Communications Commission, 1 62 (Burns), 1 80, 81 The Feeling Good Handbook (Burns), 1 80 feeling vs. thinking, 1 212 feelings (in structuralism), 2 454 Feminine Psychology (Horney), 1 176, 181, 184 2 350 F r Charles, 1 95 Ferenczi, Sandor, 1 154, 192 Feshbach, Seymour, 1 70 field theory, 2 284-285, 285,...

The baby box

In 1944, near the end of the Second World War, Skinner and Yvonne decided to have a second child. Knowing that Yvonne found the first two years of caregiving for a child arduous, Skinner suggested they simplify the care of the baby. This suggestion evolved into an invention that would later become known as the baby box, or baby tender, as Skinner called it. The baby box was intended to be a superior alternative for the traditional baby crib. Skinner's baby box consisted of a thermostatically...

Discovery learning at any stage

Jerome Bruner, a Harvard professor and Director of the Center for Cognitive Studies, developed a stage theory of cognitive growth that differs from Piaget with regard to the impact of environmental and experiential factors on the developing child. Bruner's theories were influenced by Vygotsky, particularly with regard to his emphasis on the importance of the social and political environment. Bruner understood that the process of constructing knowledge of the world is not accomplished in...

Early days as a neurologist

In the spring of 1886, in a small office in the heart of Vienna, Freud began to practice medicine. His specialty was neurology and involved treating patients with both physical and so-called nervous disorders. The majority of his work though focused on the causes and treatment for hysteria. Conventional treatment at the time consisted of measured electric shock and hypnosis, both of which Freud used in the early years of his practice. But Freud eventually abandoned both of these treatments. He...

Principal Publications

Paris Alcan, 1886. Translated by A. G. Whyte. Chicago Open Court, 1886. With Charles F r . Animal Magnetism. Paris Alcan, 1887. New York Appleton, 1892. The Experimental Study of Intelligence. Paris Schleicher Fr res, 1903. With Th odore Simon. New Methods for the Diagnosis of the Intellectual Level of Subnormals. L'Ann e psychologique 12 (1905) 191-244. With Th odore Simon. A method of measuring the development of the intelligence of young children. Bulletin de la...

Cognitive psychology

Another movement in psychology undoubtedly played a big role in shaping Bandura's opinions. In the 1950s, cognitive psychology began moving to the forefront of research and theory. This branch of psychology sees human perception and thought processes as being central to the human experience. Cognitive, or thought, processes can involve language, symbols, or imagery. Such processes include perceiving, recognizing, evaluating, imagining, and remembering information. They are essential for...

Harvard University

In 1902, Yerkes received his Ph.D. in psychology, along with an offer to stay on at Harvard as an instructor. There was just one catch The job, which involved both teaching comparative psychology and doing research, did not pay well. Yerkes had borrowed heavily to finance his education, so taking the job would be a hardship. When asked by M nsterberg whether he could afford to accept the position, Yerkes later recalled that his response was, No, but I shall, nevertheless. Yerkes taught at...

Theories In Action

Beginning almost immediately after Kelly published his work, someone began to do research using personal construct psychology as a basis. Kelly was not known to show much interest in acquiring research to support his theories. He found more value in using them abstractly using them to re-evaluate what people already knew to be true. From that point, experiments could begin with subjects in collaboration with researchers or therapists, continuing to explore the destinations to which all might be...

Explanation Corollaries

Kelly's system is basically a simple one. It is one postulate with 11 corollaries that provide the various directions in which that postulate might go. A person might act in a certain way but due to the whole system of living, inquiry, and discovery a person has established, there are many different parts of it, in a clinical setting, that the individual and therapist must know about and also examine. If a client is seeking treatment for a problem, for instance, the client and the therapist...

Shaping

Shaping is a technique that is used in behaviorism to train an organism to perform a behavior that is completely new. Shaping teaches a complex behavior by rewarding or reinforcing each step of the learning process rather than the final outcome. Explanation Shaping works from the principle that a little can eventually go a long way. The final goal or target response is beyond the realistic reach of the organism because the behavior is not yet in their behavioral repertoire it is completely new....

Punishment

When an operant behavior is followed by a response that reduces the frequency of a similar response in the future, that stimulus is called punish- When the subject a person or animal engages in a behavior and something negative is applied as a result, the behavior is less likely to be repeated. When the subject a person or animal engages in a behavior and something positive is taken away, that behavior is less likely to be repeated. ment. If a person receives a significant fine after driving...

Case studies

The classic case study in any discussion of Horney is the story of Clare. It is believed to be autobiographical, or at least a melding of her life and some of her patients, as it clearly traces a woman's life that is markedly similar to the life of Horney. Clare is the second and unwanted daughter of parents involved in an unhappy marriage. The parents wanted no more children after their first child, a son. The father is a physician who is seldom home, and the mother is rather pompous and...

Active imagination

Active imagination is a method that Jung employed to help patients digest the content of their dreams and fantasies through art or a similar form of self-expression. The purpose of this method is to draw out the aspects of an individual's personality that are normally not heard directly particularly the anima animus and the shadow and to open a channel of communication between the conscious mind and the unconscious. Over a period of time, the relationship between the patient and his or her...

Yale Laboratories of Primate Biology

In 1924, Yerkes returned to the academic world. He joined the faculty at Yale University as a professor of psychobiology, the study of mental functions and behavior in relation to other biological processes. In 1925, he received funding for four years of primate research in New Haven, Connecticut, the home of Yale. While this was certainly a step in the right direction, Yerkes continued to push for a primate research center located in a warmer clime. Finally, in 1929, the Rockefeller Foundation...

Koffka and Growth of the Mind

Wertheimer's second laboratory assistant, Kurt Koffka, left Frankfurt soon after completing the original research and spent much of the next 16 years at the University of Giessen. Koffka also took several trips to the United States between 1911 and 1927, and was largely responsible for disseminating Gestaltist thought to America. His Growth of the Mind, originally published in German, was translated and printed in English in 1924. Using Gestalt theory as a background, the book was an...

Sears and childhood aggression

At the time that Bandura began his career at Stanford, Robert Sears was chairman of the psychology department there. Sears was yet another member of the group of psychologists who had been heavily influenced by Hull at Yale, and who had gone on to make their own mark in psychology. Sears was especially interested in studying child-rearing patterns. He hoped to find observable behaviors that could be tied to psychoanalytic concepts of personality development. Psychoanalytic theory, originally...

Theories

Even though his specialty was physiology, most experts consider Pavlov's contributions to psychology, specifically those related to conditioned reflexes, to be his greatest legacy. Reflexes themselves were not a new concept. In his Lectures on Conditioned Reflexes, Pavlov notes that the idea of man as a machine governed by complex nervous reflexes originated with French philosopher and mathematician Ren Descartes three centuries earlier. Several of Pavlov's contemporaries also had explored the...

Expansion of the actualizing tendency to human personality

The more complex the living being, the more complicated are its desires for the abstract things that are coonsidered to be good. This complexity provides human beings with an additional form of this actualizing tendency the ability to improve, to make themselves into better people. Rogers calls this process of becoming the best we can be self-actualization. This core tendency for self-actualization consists of three separate areas The self A person's sense of who he or she is. The self comes...

Gestalt psychology in Europe

There was a remarkable volume of criticism between the Wundt's (elementalist or structuralist) school of psychology and nearly every other psychologist of any note in Central Europe. But as noted, the era of structuralism had effectively come to an end with the widespread acceptance of Gestalt theories in Germany and across the rest of Europe in the 1920s. Despite Nazi Germany's devaluation of Gestalt psychology (and in fact all psychology) in the 1930s, the influence of Gestalt psychology...

Psychological types

Another important contribution that Jung made to psychology was his categorization of psychological personality types. Jung was not the first theorist to attempt to classify human beings according to differences in temperament the ancient Greeks, for example, classified people according to their humors (bodily fluids that were thought to determine a person's basic disposition). Jung was, however, the first to define extraversion and introversion as descriptions of a person's fundamental psychic...

Early years

Beck was born in Providence, Rhode Island, on July 18, 1921, the youngest of five children. Both of his parents were Russian Jewish immigrants to the United States. Two of Beck's siblings had died before his birth, an older brother in childhood and an older sister in the influenza pandemic of 1919. As a result of these tragedies, Beck's mother was chronically depressed for several years and became overpro-tective of her youngest son. Beck came to think that he was a replacement for his...

Social science and the rule of law Desegregation

Clark strove to protect the psychological well-being of all children. Working through the summer of 1953, he gathered all the information he could find on desegregation, completing a comprehensive review of the scientific literature on the subject. He published the results of this research in an article entitled Desegregation An Appraisal of the Evidence in the Journal of Social Issues in 1953. Clark served on a committee of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI),...

Susan T Fiske

Fiske is a prominent social psychologist and professor of psychology at Princeton University. She was born on August 19, 1952, to Donald W. Fiske and Barbara Page Fiske. Fiske has one brother, Alan Page Fiske, a professor of anthropology at UCLA. Her father was a psychologist and psychology professor, as well. His career spanned nearly five decades. He retired from the University of Chicago (UC) and died at the age of 86 in April 2003. Fiske was the first recipient of the Donald W....

Research

Wertheimer's apparent movement study Though the tachistoscope Wertheimer used at the Frankfurt Psychological Institute was more complex, the child's stroboscope he initially used in the hotel room demonstrates the same function. If one looks into a box that has two slits cut into it, and a source of light is placed so that it alternates shining behind each of the slits, the person looking into the box will perceive one moving light even though there are two lights and no movement. Whether the...

Spatial learning

Janellen Huttenlocher, a professor of Psychology at the University of Chicago, and the 2002 recipient of the G. Stanley Hall Award for Distinguished Contribution to Developmental Psychology, is a leading researcher on spatial learning. Her studies have shown that children acquire an understanding of spatial information much earlier than Piaget proposed. Infants as young as six months, she said, are able to use the inborn ability of dead reckoning skills to understand the location of objects...

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Haag, Ernest van den, 1 134, 135 Haeckel, Ernst, 1 218 Haggbloom, Steven, 1 40 Hall, G. Stanley, 2 389, 439, 452, 463-464 Clinic, 1 170 Hampton, William, 2 366 Handbook of Human Physiology (M ller), 2 451 Handbook of Psychology (Baldwin), 2 465 Haque-Copilah, A., 1 246 Harding, M. Esther, 1 219 Harlem Youth Opportunities Project, 1 120-122, 123-124, 132 Harlow, Harry, 1 7, 2 306, 494 Harpalani, Vinay, 1 134-135 Harvard Civil Rights Project, 1 138 Harvard University, 1 50, 138, 254, 2 406,...

Biography

Wilhelm Max Wundt was born on August 16, 1832, in Neckarau, a suburb of Mannheim, Germany. His father, Maximillian (1787-1846) was a Lutheran pastor whom Wundt once described as a jovial and generous person, but generous to a fault. Wundt's mother, Maria Friederike Arnold Wundt, (1797-1868) was from a modestly wealthy family whose governess had taught her French as a child. When Wundt was four, his father accepted a position in Heidelsheim, a small country village in stark contrast to the...

The World War I years and his early teaching

In 1912, Max Wertheimer published his groundbreaking paper, Experimental Studies of the Perception of Movement. He stayed on at the emerging University of Frankfurt, the place he had come to so impulsively from a trip on a train. His stay in Frankfurt was the result of Schumann and the faculty there inviting Wertheimer to remain as a Privadozent (called PD for short). A Privadozent is a unique position in the university system of Europe and most common specifically in German academic life....

Previous dominance of the psychoanalytic model

As the preceding outline of Beck's medical training indicates, classical psychoanalysis was the basic model for practicing psychotherapy in the United States in the 1930s through the 1950s. Its influence was particularly strong in the Northeast, where Beck received his undergraduate as well as his professional education. This influence stemmed in part from the famous series of lectures that Freud had delivered at Clark University in Massachusetts in 1909. The Boston Psychoanalytic Society and...

Historical Context

Skinner's theory of operant conditioning did not spring from his mind alone. Several theorists were profoundly influential in laying a foundation for the work Skinner was to build on. All behavioral theories owe some debt of gratitude to Ivan Pavlov for developing the principles of classical conditioning. Pavlov, who won the Nobel Prize in 1904 for his work on digestion, was best known for his experiments on basic learning processes. While studying the secretion of stomach acids and salivation...

Twentiethcentury psychological theories

Piaget's professional life spanned a tumultuous six decades of the mid twentieth century, during a time of rapid growth and development in the scientific disciplines. Piaget read widely in the fields of philosophy and psychology. He was influenced in his reading by the ideas of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), whose concept of categories was a precedent for later psychological theories using terms such as constructs and schemes. He was also influenced by Henri Bergson (1859-1941), whose book Creative...

Brief Overview Of Alfred Binet

Alfred Binet is best remembered as the developer of the first useful test for measuring intelligence. Along with Th odore Simon, Binet developed the Binet-Simon Scale, the forerunner of modern IQ tests. Binet's original goal for the scale was relatively modest and very practical. In the early years of the 1900s, the French government had just enacted laws requiring that all children be given a public education. For the first time, mentally subnormal children those who today might be called...

Archetypes

The concept of the archetype has been described as Jung's most distinctive contribution to psychology. In Jung's system, an archetype is a symbol or typical mode of expression drawn from the collective unconscious. Jung derived his notion of the collective unconscious from his work with the schizophrenic patients at the Burgholzli hospital. Noticing the similarities between some of the images in their fantasies and those found in myths and legends from a wide variety of cultures and historical...

Free will and personal responsibility

Skinner's operant conditioning opposes the concepts of free choice and personal responsibility. He maintained that it is the environment that determines what a person was, is, and will be in the future. He accounts for genetic inheritance by referring to the environments that existed during evolutionary history. In short, he claims that environmental factors determine behavior in a way that free will and individual choice play no causal role. According to Skinner, each person is unique, but not...

A measure of selfesteem

Racial preference behavior is not synonymous with self esteem, particularly for young children, according to Vinay Harpalani, in an essay Simple Justice or Complex Injustice The Ironic Legacies of Brown v. Board of Education. Harpalani cites the work of several researchers, including that of Margaret Beale Spencer in the early 1980s, who found that most black children who demonstrate a preference for the white doll still score high on self-esteem measures. Harpalani contends that the Clarks'...

Triumphs and disappointments

Binet was busy revising the scale when he died in Paris on October 18, 1911. He was at the height of a remarkable career. Binet's final years, however, were marked by disappointments as well as triumphs. Perhaps the greatest disappointment was his failure to secure a position as a university professor. In 1895, Binet visited the University of Bucharest in Romania as a guest lecturer. His lectures were a hit with the students, and he was invited to stay on as a professor. He turned down the...

University years

It took Freud eight years an unusually long time before he finally received his medical degree in 1881. Reports from friends who knew him during that time, as well as information from Freud's own letters, suggest that he was less diligent about his medical studies than he might have been. He focused instead on scientific research. In the spring of 1876 he obtained a coveted grant to perform research at a nearby research center maintained by Vienna University. Although it wasn't necessarily the...

Extinction

Once an operant has been reinforced and become common, there is no guarantee that the frequency of the response will remain the same in the future. Either extinction or punishment will cause a response to become less frequent. Regardless of which one is in effect, both work in the opposite direction from reinforcement. Extinction consists of the discontinuation of reinforcement, whether positive or negative, that once maintained a given behavior. This withholding of the reinforcement will, in...

Observational learning and modeling

Main points Behaviorism, the dominant school of psychology when Bandura was a student, holds that people are conditioned, or trained, to respond in certain ways by rewards and punishments. Bandura soon realized that this could not be the whole explanation for how people learn. It would take several lifetimes to learn all the complicated responses that people need to know by rewards and punishments alone. Bandura suggested that there must be a way that people can learn simply by watching others,...

Max Wertheimer and Albert Einstein

Another of the brilliant minds that Wertheimer remained in contact with in the United States was physicist Albert Einstein. Arthur I. Miller states in Albert Einstein and Max Wertheimer A Gestalt Genesis of Special Relativity Theory, History of Science that Einstein, throughout his life, stayed in contact with many of the intellectual luminaries of his time. There are archival records of his correspondence with Sigmund Freud. Contained in these letters is the disagreement he expressed to Freud...

Jungian training institutes

Jung was the first major figure in the history of psychology to insist that analysts should themselves undergo analysis. We have learned to place in the foreground the personality of the doctor himself as a curative or harmful factor . . . what is now demanded is his own transformation the self-education of the educator. . . . The doctor can no longer evade his own difficulty by treating the difficulties of others the man who suffers from a running abscess is not fit to perform a surgical...

College years

At this point, a kindly uncle came to his rescue. The uncle was a homeopathic physician in Collegeville, Pennsylvania, home of Ursinus College. He offered Yerkes a chance to earn his way through college by doing chores around the uncle's house and stable. Yerkes jumped at the opportunity. In 1892, he entered Ursinus Academy, a preparatory school where he studied ancient languages. A year later, he was admitted to the college program. At Ursinus College, Yerkes majored in chemistry and biology....

Behaviorist criticisms

The earliest criticisms of Beck's work came from behaviorist psychologists, particularly Joseph Wolpe and B. F. Skinner, on the grounds that cognitive therapy is a form of mentalism, which may be defined as the belief that mental processes are autonomous and cannot be explained by an organism's behavior. Behaviorists have also criticized Beck for departing from basic science in his use of self-report paper-and-pencil questionnaires and his inability to demonstrate that cognitions are anything...

Kurt Koffka

Kurt Koffka (1886-1941) was born into a comfortable, upper-class family in Berlin on March 18, 1886. His father, an attorney, had served as a royal legal councilor. Koffka had governesses as a child, one of whom was English-speaking. He attended the University of Berlin and used the English he had learned as a child when in 1904 he took a year to study at the University of Edinburgh. Like Max Wertheimer before him, he changed his major from philosophy to psychology when he returned to Germany...

Chronology

1832 Wilhelm Wundt born in Neckarau, Baden, Germany, outside of Leipzig, on August 16. 1849 Ivan Pavlov born in the village of Ryazan, Russia. 1852 Napoleon III founded the Second Empire in France. 1856 Sigismund Freud is born (changes his name to Sigmund at age 22). 1857 Alfred Binet born on July 8 in Nice, France. 1857 Louis Pasteur introduces his germ theory of fermentation. 1857 Wilhelm Wundt begins a seven-year position as lecturer in physiology at Heidelberg. During this time he serves as...

The last years

Over the years, Wertheimer had in many ways acted like a butterfly, flitting from project to project, leaving little that was tangible. He had never written a cogent, complete statement on Gestalt theory, nor shown any interest in doing so. Yet all of his work had consistently remained within the parameters of the Gestalt theory that he had published in 1912. He had published as many articles on ethics, music, and other non-psychological subjects as he had on Gestalt psychology over the years...

Sources

A kind word for Theory X Or why so many newfangled management techniques quickly fail. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 13 (2003) 239-65. Boeree, C. G. Personality Theories Rollo May. Shippensburg U. 1998 cited March 28, 2004 . http www.ship.edu cgboeree may.html. Boeree, C. G. Personality Theories Viktor Frankl. Shippensburg U. 2002 cited March 28, 2004 .http www.ship. edu cgboeree frankl.html. Burger, J. M. The humanistic approach....

Wolfgang Khler

Though born in the Baltic state of Estonia, Wolfgang K hler (1887-1967) was German. When he was six years old his family moved back to Germany, to a town named Wolfenb ttell. As a young man he attended the Universities of T bingen, Bonn, and Berlin, and studied under both Carl Stumpf and physicist Max Planck. Having earned his Ph.D in 1909 for a paper on acoustics, K hler moved to Frankfurt to join the Psychological Institute there. The next year, his fateful meeting with Max Wertheimer not...

Religion art and creativity

Jung has had a greater impact than have most psychologists outside the field of psychology, largely because of the way his approach incorporated art, literature, and religion. Jung's discussions of the archetypes, the process of individuation, the Self, and other subjects assume that the reader is familiar with the Greek and Roman classics, with the Hebrew and Christian Scriptures, and with the major works of European literature. With regard to art, we have seen that Jung encouraged his...

Principle of practice and adaptation

Explanation Wundt used the word practice in the standard meaning of the term as in the repeated performance of a function. With regard to the nervous system, practice indicated that every key element would get better as it went through the ongoing process of being fitted to perform or participate in a particular function. Adaptation would come with the practice and it would cause changes along the way until a different combination was born. Examples When adaptation occurred with regard to...

Rogers core of personality

Explanation The actualizing tendency For Rogers, plants and human beings gravitated toward survival in similar ways. Rogers, who in his youth had observed the plants and animals on his father's farm, had overheard the experts his father had consulted regarding breeding, learned the proper feed and environmental conditions, and observed the phenomenon of an urge for survival over and over again. In fact, in his early writings he cited mushrooms and seaweed as good examples of life struggling to...

Neurosis

As stated, the basis for all of Horney's theories was her personal experience. She considered herself neurotic, and all of her work relates to the treatment of neurosis. She also considered herself and the neurotic patients she saw to be victims. The psychic pain she had experienced from her earliest years convinced her that the events of her childhood had colored all of the rest of her life. In this belief the notion that neurosis has its basis in childhood experiences she and Freud concurred...

The goals of Jungian analysis

Jung referred to his method of treatment as analytical psychology, in order to distinguish it from Freudian psychoanalysis. The distinctive features of analytical psychology are its concern with bringing the contents of the patient's unconscious into consciousness and its interest in furthering the patient's movement toward wholeness and integration (the process of individuation). The contents of the unconscious reveal themselves in dreams, in material produced through the method of active...

Selfhelp groups and bibliotherapy

Another historical factor that has favored the growth of cognitive therapy since the 1970s is the rapid proliferation of self-help groups and the growing popularity of self-help books. Bibliotherapy, or the use of books to help people solve problems or train themselves in such techniques as those used in cognitive therapy, has become widely used since it was first discussed in the early 1980s. In addition, the Twelve Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and similar groups (Al-Anon, Overeaters...

Recent discoveries in cognitive science

Some observers note that discoveries about consciousness and the functioning of the human brain that were made in the 1980s and 1990s do not support Beck's notion of a close relationship between cognitions and emotions. The first such discovery was made in the course of so-called split-brain research. Split-brain research refers to studies carried out with epileptic subjects who have had a commissurotomy. In this procedure, the neurosurgeon cuts the corpus callosum, a band of tissue that...

First principle To take psychology seriously

Main points The first principle of genetic epistemol-ogy is to take psychology seriously, Piaget said in the 1968 Woodbridge Lectures at Columbia University. By this he meant when a question of psychological fact arises, psychological research should be consulted instead of trying to invent a solution through private speculation. Piaget considered his work that of an empirical scientist. The fundamental hypothesis that he investigated throughout the course of his career is what he called the...

The operant chamber

An operant-conditioning chamber, also commonly known as a Skinner box, is an experimental apparatus that was invented by B. F. Skinner in 1935 and was the basis of operant conditioning theory. Operant theory suggests that humans and animals operate on their environment and in doing so, encounter reinforcing stimuli that shape behavior. In operant conditioning, the behavior is followed by a consequence, which reinforces the behavior and makes it more likely to be repeated. Skinner used the...

Rotter and social learning

Rotter was another graduate of the University of Iowa, where he took classes with Lewin. However, he had moved on before Bandura arrived. In 1954, Rotter published Social Learning and Clinical Psychology, in which he laid out his own theory of social learning. Where Miller and Dollard's work in this area had been firmly grounded in conditioning and reinforcement, Rotter's work was a step further removed from behaviorism. Of course, this means it was also a step closer to Bandura's theory, which...

Feminist theory arguments

From Horney's earliest (feminist) arguments against Freudian thought and through the development of her own theories, she was embroiled in controversy. In many ways, this controversy was a product of Horney's interpersonal style. She took on, at one time or another throughout her career, nearly every other luminary of psychotherapy that shared her time in history. Obviously the disagreements she became involved in with Freud and his disciple Karl Abraham from 1920 on were the first shots fired...

The controversy continues

Criticisms of the validity of the Clarks' findings and the role of social scientists in the Brown decision seem to emerge on every celebrated anniversary of the historic Supreme Court decision, and numerous books and essays have been published on the issue. The book What Brown V Board of Education Should Have Said The Nation's Top Legal Experts Rewrite America's Landmark Civil Rights Decision, published in 2001, consists of essays by nine of America's top constitutional and civil rights experts...

Miller Dollard and social learning

Miller and Dollard were also part of the group of psychologists who had gathered at Yale in the 1930s and '40s and were influenced by Hull. Miller and Dollard produced the first scholarly work on social learning. As they saw it, social learning involved habits, which were the associations between particular stimuli and responses. These habits were built up by way of a hierarchy of acquired drives. As an example, say a boy was petting a dog, when the dog suddenly attacked him. The boy would...

Galton and hereditary intelligence

The first person to try to develop a scientific intelligence test was Francis Galton. This British scientist, a half-cousin of English naturalist Charles Darwin, was a polymath, a person who is knowledgeable in many scientific areas. His interests included studying weather, fingerprints, and the peoples of Africa. Galton argued that plants and animals varied in systematic ways, and he devised new statistical methods for studying heredity. When it came to people, Galton proposed a controversial...

Historical Overview

In a very real sense, psychology is probably as old as humanity. In fact, some scientists have argued that one of the defining characteristics of human beings is the ability to study the behavior of others, imagine oneself in their positions and make predictions about their future behavior based on these insights. Certainly, there is evidence that humans have done just that at least since the dawn of recorded history. Ancient writings from China, Egypt, India, Persia, and Greece all display an...

Socialcognitive theory and moral disengagement

Main points Bandura began his career by studying aggression in children and teenagers. Near the end of his career, the roots of aggression and violence are still of great interest to him. He has extended his research to include all kinds of moral disengagement in other words, the capacity for all types of antisocial and immoral acts. In social-cognitive theory, the capacity for self-control over moral behavior has two functions. On one hand, it gives people the ability to refrain from acting...

Classical conditioning

Main points Through Pavlov's work on the physiology of the digestive system, he discovered that digestive processes could be triggered even before food passed a dog's lips. Just showing food to a hungry dog could cause the animal to begin to salivate and secrete gastric juices. Why did these external factors cause these reactions, or reflexes The dogs had previously learned through experience that the appearance of a bowl of kibble meant they would be eating shortly, so the sight of food cued...

The stage is set for greatness

In 1896, Binet and his assistant, Henri, published a paper describing what they called individual psychology. As they explained it, general psychology dealt with broad psychological properties that are common to everyone. Individual psychology, in contrast, dealt with properties that vary from one person to another. Their aim was to study this variation both within and across individuals. In order to do that, however, Binet soon realized that he needed practical tests of psychological...

Critical Response

The field observation techniques of Mary Ainsworth were perhaps the most unorthodox, and thus most criticized, aspect of her research among contemporaries. In fact, after her Baltimore study, Ainsworth had difficulty getting a grant for another longitudinal study of the same type because most funding entities considered her original sample size too small and her clinically focused interview technique too far afield. Ainsworth was also initially taken to task for non-objective language in case...

Social learning and aggression

Main points Aggression is one of the most troubling, yet pervasive, aspects of human existence. It is no wonder, then, that a number of theories about the nature and causes of aggression have been proposed over the years. For example, Sigmund Freud explained aggression as a death wish that is turned outward onto others through a process called displacement. Dollard, Miller, and their colleagues proposed that aggression is a response to the frustration of some goal-directed behavior. And several...

Other criticisms of Freud and psychoanalysis

As more has been learned about child development since Freud's theories were first launched, there has been an increasing lack of support for some of his assumptions about the human personality. Perhaps none of his ideas have met with as much criticism as his psychosexual stages of development. While many modern-day clinicians still find aspects of his stages helpful, most do not adhere to the presupposition of sexual conflict being the central task of developmental maturity. Thus, concepts...

Viktor Frankl

Viktor Frankl (1905-1997) grew up in a Jewish community in Vienna. He studied medicine and neurology and became interested in psychoanalysis. He was becoming established as a psychiatrist and neurologist when the Nazis took over Austria in 1938. In his capacity as head of the neurological department of Rothschild Hospital, he shielded a number of psychotic patients from the Nazi policy of mercy killing of mentally ill patients. In 1942, shortly after his marriage, Frankl, his wife, his parents,...

Social learning

Main points Before Bandura, psychologist Julian Rotter had put forth his own theory of social learning. In a 1954 book, titled Social Learning and Clinical Psychology, Rotter held that people choose which behaviors to perform based on two factors reinforcement value and outcome expectancy. Reinforcement value refers to the degree to which an individual values the expected reinforcement, or reward, for an action. Outcome expectancy refers to how strongly the individual expects the action to have...

In his profession

Kelly's first job that fall of 1931 was at Fort Hays Kansas State College. With his new bride, he traveled into the heart of what would become forever known as the Dust Bowl, almost a euphemism for the hardship of the Depression itself. In Kelly's own words It did not take many weeks in those depression times to reach the decision to pursue something more humanitarian than physiological psychology. Too many young people were wondering what, if anything, to do with their lives. The schools, only...

Horneys later years Selfrealization neurotic needs and coping mechanisms

Like Carl Jung, Horney preferred the term self' to the Freudian term ego. Horney's self is not a fixed entity. She believed that it was composed of both hereditary factors, including temperament, predisposition, talents, and abilities and environmental factors such as the family of origin and area of residence. In a further expansion of discoveries of the 1930s, Horney began to Karen Horney with her pet dog. (Copyright Bettmann Corbis. Reproduced by permission.) Karen Horney with her pet dog....

Nature of human moral development

Main points Consistent with Kohlberg's emphasis on justice as the foundational moral principle, he regarded moral development as largely a cognitive process. In this regard he was a follower of Jean Piaget, whose studies of children focused as early as 1932 on questions of moral development. As has already been mentioned, Kohlberg's selection of a topic for his doctoral dissertation research was prompted by his interest in the Swiss psychologist's work. Kohlberg's high regard for Piaget was...

Segregationist psychologists

Psychology's scientific racists fought hard to provide statistical evidence to prevent racial integration in the public schools, according to Robert V. Guthrie, writing in the book Even the Rat Was White. One of the most prominent of the segregationist psychologists was Henry E. Garrett, a militant opponent of the 1954 Supreme Court decision. According to the Institute for the Study of Academic Racism, Garrett used his credentials as a psychologist and as a past president of the APA to...

Discrimination and generalization

People and animals learn to pay attention to cues in the environment that reliably signal certain consequences for their actions. Learning to distinguish one stimulus from another is called stimulus-control training. For instance, it doesn't take a child very long to distinguish that a red light at an intersection means stop and a green light means go. In stimulus-control training, a behavior is reinforced in the presence of a specific stimulus but not in its absence. Stimulus generalization...

Cattell and mental tests

James McKeen Cattell, an American psychologist, soon built upon Galton's physiological method of measuring intelligence. In 1890, he published a set of mental tests, a catchy term he coined. Cattell suggested 10 mental tests for use with the general public. Dynamometer pressure. This test measured the strength of a person's hand grip. Cattell explained that he included this test because it is impossible to separate bodily from mental energy. Rate of hand movement. This test measured how quickly...

Analysis and interpretation of resistance

Resistance in a psychoanalytic context is anything that works against the progress of therapy and prevents the patient from accessing unconscious material. Resistance then is any idea, attitude, feeling, or action that gets in the way of potential change. During free association, a patient may show an unwillingness to relate to certain thoughts or experiences. Freud views resistance as an unconscious process that people use to protect themselves against intolerable anxiety and pain that might...

Principles of Gestalt psychology

Explanation Wertheimer did not immediately comprehend all the implications of his initial study. After the publication of his 1912 paper, Wertheimer became actively involved in the German war effort during World War 1. This meant that much of the time from 1914 to 1920 was devoted to research and development on subjects other than Gestalt theory. It was not until 1923 that Wertheimer published a tract further enlarging upon his ideas about perception and perceptual grouping. In reality, what he...

Social climate of the 1960s and 1970s

Kohlberg's rise to a kind of academic stardom in the early 1970s had much to do with the political and social upheavals in the United States toward the end of the 1960s. The civil rights movement, the Vietnam War, and the political scandal of the Watergate hearings brought moral issues to the forefront of public attention these conflicts gave the question of moral education in the schools a new urgency. In addition, Kohlberg's emphasis on the importance of bridging academic theory and...

Generalizing findings to human behavior

Skinner conducted nearly all of his experiments with laboratory animals, most of which were rats and pigeons. Although there have been a number of successful applications of Skinner's concepts with humans, criticism has been leveled over how much of the results of Skinner's experiments can actually be generalized to human beings. The criticism basically states that humans are far more complex and advanced than the animals used in the operant experiments, so how can Skinner so confidently...

Further Analysis

Mary Ainsworth developed the strange situation protocol with the assistance of colleague and clinical psychologist Barbara Wittig in 1969. The technique was first used on 23 of the 26 mother-infant pairs involved in Ainsworth's Baltimore studies, right around the time of each infant's first birthday. In brief, the strange situation is a 20-minute test that brings an infant into an unfamiliar laboratory environment with an array of new and interesting toys, and exposes him or her to a series of...

Howard University A mecca for black intellectuals

Intent on the study of medicine, Clark left Harlem for Washington, D.C., to enroll in the historic Howard University, an integrated, co-educational school from its founding days in 1867. Howard was established to train teachers and ministers who would then go out to teach the four million freed slaves and 25,000 freeborn blacks in the years following the Civil War. The university became known as a black intellectual mecca, attracting talented and distinguished African-American scholars to the...

Methodology

Piaget's empirical research took many forms throughout his career, depending on what aspect of cognitive development he was studying at the time. He employed techniques of careful, naturalistic observation of the child's spontaneous behavior. Sometimes this observation was without intervention other times he introduced some form of verbal or motor stimulus to elicit a response. He attempted to follow the child's thought as he observed. Piaget and his coworkers then added experimental tasks for...

Teaching machines and programmed instruction

By 1953, Skinner's children were growing up his youngest child was now in the fourth grade. Skinner attended his daughter's class one November day at the school's invitation for fathers to observe their children. He had no idea that this visitation would alter the direction of his career. As Skinner sat at the back of this typical fourth grade math class, what he saw suddenly hit him with an unnatural force of inspiration. As he put it, through no fault of her own the teacher was violating...

Further readings

Constructive Evolution Origins and Development of Piaget's Thought. Cambridge University Press, 1988. DeLisi, R. and Golbeck, S. Implications of Piagetian theory for peer learning, (3-37). In A. O'Donnell & A. King (Eds.) Cognitive Perspectives on Peer Learning. Mahwah, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999. Evans, Richard L. Jean Piaget The Man and His Ideas. Trans. by Eleanor Duckworth. New York E. P. Dutton and Co., Inc., 1973. Flavell, John H. The Developmental Psychology of...

Freuds early disciples

Freud's theory of psychoanalysis was built on the assumption that human beings have an unconscious mind. This unconscious mind, with its hidden drives and instincts, is what drives behavior. And since the unconscious is so pervasive and directive, it determines behavior, or to say it more philosophically, is deterministic. Psychoanalysis is a highly deterministic approach to human behavior because it assumes that behavioral patterns established in youth determine one's behavior later in life....

Civil rights and social science

Main points Kenneth Bancroft Clark, the antiracist psychologist-activist emerged as a prominent social scientist in the mid-twentieth century largely as a result of his role in the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court case. Clark remained a politically engaged intellectual throughout his career and boldly articulated the democratic ideal of equal rights during decades of legitimized racism and de facto segregation. Clark applied social psychology to leverage democratic social change,...

Schooling and marriage

In those high school years, Karen expanded her education in more than academics. She was a gifted student, but while still in her teens, she began a series of affairs with an unending parade of men. Such liaisons would characterize most of her life. In the diary she began to keep at age 13, Karen noted, Being in love displaced all other worries for if he is my thought day and night, how then should others have room Her first love was an unnamed actor, followed by an equally anonymous friend of...

Return to Switzerland and international acclaim

Piaget returned to his home in Switzerland in 1925 to work at his alma mater, Neuchatel University, where he was to occupy academic chairs as professor of psychology, sociology, and the history of sciences during a five-year tenure. In 1928, Piaget had the good chance to meet Albert Einstein who, Piaget said, impressed me profoundly, because he took an interest in everything. Einstein recognized the genius in Piaget's insights and work. He suggested to Piaget that he should study the notions of...

Simplistic and techniqueoriented

One of the most common criticisms of cognitive therapy is that it is superficial and consists of a cookbook or mechanical approach to psychotherapy. This line of criticism gathered force after 1979, when Beck published Cognitive Therapy of Depression. The book offered therapists an explicit description of the course of therapy, from a discussion of the structure of the therapeutic interview and a session-by-session outline of the treatment of a depressed patient to explanations of therapeutic...

Anna Freud

Anna Freud, in addition to being the youngest daughter of Sigmund Freud, was a pivotal figure in the field of child psychoanalysis and development. She was born in Vienna, Austria, and educated at private schools in Vienna. From the beginning Anna did not form a close bond with her mother, but she did feel especially close to her father while growing up. She received much affirmation from the elder Freud, and he routinely expressed his approval of her intellectual interests and pursuits. As a...

Growing interest in psychology

Human behavior had always interested Skinner, but college did little to further his interest in psychology. The only formal instruction he recalled receiving at the university lasted 10 minutes. After college, Skinner's literary interests did more to carry him in the direction of psychology than formal studies. Yet he did owe a debt to one of his college instructors for exposing him to the material that would start him down a path he would follow the rest of his career. A biology teacher at...

Khlers mindbody approach and Gestalt psychology

In 1913, Wolfgang K hler left Frankfurt, Germany for primate research in Tenerife, in the Canary Islands. Many of the problem-solving studies that he did with chimpanzees there led directly to Gestalt therapy, the treatment of the mind using Gestalt principles. In 1917, he wrote of his experiences in his book, The Mentality of Apes. Increasingly, though, and especially after his return to Germany and appointment as director of the laboratory at the University of Berlin, K hler concentrated on...

When selfactualization isnt functioning

Explanation Though self-actualization should be based on the inborn abilities a person possesses, it is actually very much affected by upbringing and society. Therefore, the innate potential a person has may not always be manifested if forces outside of the person harm or attempt to destroy him or her. Rogers considers one of the most important negative forces to be conditional positive regard, or withholding of love, acceptance, and approval to the child by parents unless the child complies...

Basic anxiety

As noted previously, Horney came to perceive neurosis as one major type of maladaptive personality development, not nearly as abnormal as psychiatric thinkers prior to her had believed. Like Freud, she was convinced that it developed out of childhood experience. Surprisingly, she did not believe that parental abuse or neglect necessarily caused children to grow into neurotics. However she was convinced that what she termed the basic evil, the lack of warmth or caring, the indifference of...

Horneys family of origin and early years

Eilbek was a bustling small town on the outskirts of the port of Hamburg, Germany, when Karen Clementine Danielsen was born there on September 15th, 1885. She was the second (and last) child born to Berndt (Wackels) Danielsen, a Norwegian sea captain and his young wife, Sonni. Captain Danielsen had been married before, and had four grown children before he fell in love with this woman 20 years his junior. Clothilde Sonni Van Ronzelen Danielsen was an unusual woman for her time. Described as...

Gestalt psychology

The most important intellectual influence on Kurt Lewin was Gestalt psychology, a German school of thought that developed in the late nineteenth century in opposition to associationist and behaviorist views. Psychologists in both these groups broke down psychological events into separate parts and then proceeded to analyze the parts without reference to the whole. The Gestaltists insisted that psychological events had to be interpreted as integral wholes. The German philosopher Immanuel Kant...

Critical evaluation of the theory

Although Maslow's theory is intuitively appealing, it has several weaknesses that have never been resolved. In order for a theory of behavior to be useful, it has to meet certain logical criteria, and it also has to be supported by a body of well-designed research. Critics have pointed out that Maslow's theory falls short on these requirements. Many of Maslow's important concepts are vague and poorly defined, and this makes it very difficult to do research on important aspects of the theory. In...