Chimeras Of P450 Enzymes

The production of catalytically self-sufficient P450 enzymes in bacterial hosts has a wide range of possible exciting applications. For instance cytochromes P450 metabolise a range of drugs and chemicals so bacteria containing these enzymes may help to further our understanding of human drug metabolism, the consequences of drug-drug interactions and the activation of carcinogens. The fusion protein hosts may also allow the mass production of compounds of interest by incorporating P450...

Langmuirblodgett Films On Solid Supports

One of the most attractive methods to manipulate thin films at the molecular level is the Langmuir-Blodgett technique 18, 46-48 . Briefly, the technique involves spreading of water insoluble molecules at the surface of an aqueous subphase that fills a Teflon basin to the brim. On top of the tray one or more movable and in most cases hydrophilic barriers reside. The surface confined molecules are trapped inside a surface area that is defined by the walls of the trough and the position of the...

Radical Reactions With Biomolecules

The study of the chemistry of bioradicals is important for the understanding of later biological effects. As we will discuss further damage to the genetic material DNA is the most critical event in radiation exposure of biological systems. Radiation exposure of cells in living organisms may result in cell replication failure or in chromosome aberrations, leading to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Radiation damage to proteins, lipids and carbohydrates is relevant for effects such as enzyme...

Biosensors Based On Freediffusing Redox Mediators

Considering any real application, it is of great importance that the biosensors are operated within an optimal potential window (approximately between -0.10 to +0.05 V vs. SCE), where electrochemical interference is minimal 10 . This can be practically realised in two different sensor architectures. The first sensor types use artificial, free-diffusing, electron-transfer mediators (redox couples with a formal potential lying within the optimal potential range), replacing the natural electron...

The Artificial Cell Membrane

The discussion above underlines the complexity of the biological membrane and the problems the architect of an artificial lipid membrane faces. The quest to build a structure that totally mimics the plasma membrane in all its details is overwhelming. Instead one has to focus on the creation of an overall structure, which possesses the most important characteristics of the living cell membrane. The artificial membrane should therefore consist of a continuous bilayer of phospholipids where the...

Rat Secretin Receptor

A secondary structure model representation of the rat secretin receptor. The putative signal peptide is bordered by a rectangle and Y indicates the glycosylable asparagine residues. Figure 1. A secondary structure model representation of the rat secretin receptor. The putative signal peptide is bordered by a rectangle and Y indicates the glycosylable asparagine residues. Four glycosylable asparagine residues were found in the N-EC a fifth residue was present in the EC2 domain of the...

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Traditionally used radioactive colloids are not ideal because their small particle size and large size distribution lead to radiation leakage from the joint 126,1271. Higher than desired leakage has also been measured in liposomes filled with 99mTc 128 and in liposomes that contain the chelating DTTA-group covalently bound to cholesterol 129 . In the second case, the chelator was incorporated into the liposomes' phospholipid-wail during preparation and was then able to bind different...

Interprotein Electron Transfer

The fundamental importance of protein ET in biology and the potential biotechnological implications that it underpins have attracted much research effort over the last decade. This has mostly been directed towards elucidating the nature of the interactions between hypothetical physiological ET partners demonstrating how interprotein ET is the result of a number of events that occur in several stages 15-16 . The initial event leading to the reaction is the diffusional encounter of the protein...

Radiolabeling By Neutron Activation Of Premade Microspheres

Neutrons Yttrium

A very effective way of preventing leakage of the radioactive isotope s from the microsphere is to seal the radioisotope into the microsphere matrix. The pre-made microspheres enclose the non-radioactive precursor of the radioisotope and are activated in a nuclear reactor by bombardment with thermal neutrons shortly before use Table 6 . The most stable matrix for this kind of microsphere activation is glass. Day and Ehrhardt pioneered such therapeutic radioactive microspheres Figure 4 from...

Amine Oxidasebased Biosensors For Monitoring Of Fish Freshness

Biogenic amines can act as possible biomarkers for control of food products 35-37 . Putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine and histamine are the most known compounds in this class, their concentration being a good indicator of fish, meat, and cheese freshness 3842 . Biogenic amines are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of corresponding amino acids and their toxicological significance in food products is still unclear. However, they can cause severe effects, such as headache and facial...