The Agepm Paradox

Phillips et al. (chap. 8, this volume) provide a critical examination of factors that have commonly been held responsible for the age-PM paradox and in particular for the unexpected positive effects of old age on PM performance in naturalistic studies. These data have been too readily dismissed in the past largely because of a lack of experimental control over participants' use of memory aids, ongoing activities, and so on. Note, for example, the comment that although the study of behavior in...

Methodological Issues Of Studying Prospective Memory In Children

With the exception of the diary method, research on children has used similar methods to those used in adult studies an interview and questionnaire method and the experiments conducted in- and outside the laboratory. Because the laboratory method has become predominant in both adult and developmental research, we concentrate on the laboratory method. Consequently, important questions that need to be addressed are whether children's prospective memory can be studied with laboratory methods used...

The Retrospective Component of Prospective Memory

Although prospective memory primarily involves remembering to perform a future action, prospective memory has a significant retrospective component that is, a component that requires that individuals remember past information and actions. In the discussion in the preceding section, we presented data suggesting that older adults have difficulty remembering medical information and that this difficulty has the potential to impact medical adherence. Other data have focused on individuals' ability...

The Role Of Others In Prospective Remembering

Very few studies explored the role of others in prospective remembering. Kobayashi and Maruno (1994) compared two groups of participants. In one group, all participants shared the date on which they had to mail a questionnaire, whereas in the other group, mailing dates varied across participants. Contrary to the authors' prediction, the percentage of returned questionnaires was significantly lower for the group with a common mailing date. To explain these data, Kobayashi and Maruno (1994)...

TABLE 151 Studies Applying RBMT Prospective Memory Items

Correspondence between the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test and ecological prospective memory Neuropsychological assessment in the prediction of everyday functional abilities of older adults 24 patients with mild cognitive impairment Examination of everyday memory impairment in patients with mild cognitive impairment Patients were asked to complete everyday tasks in the morning without any verbal or visual cues. After lunch break, staff gave patients a verbal cue, reminding them that their...

References

L. (1947). Report of a case of bilateral frontal lobe defect. Research Publications Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, 27, 479-504. Alderman, N., Burgess, P. W., Knight, C., & Henman, C. (2003). Ecological validity of a simplified version of the multiple errands shopping test. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 31-44. Baddeley, A., Della Salla, S., Gray, C., Papagno, C., & Spinnler, H. (1997). Testing central...

An Experimental Study Of Interruptions

Our group is attempting to develop experimental paradigms that would allow exploration of the factors identified in our studies of prospective memory in aviation and everyday settings. We have developed a paradigm that allows us to study how some of these factors play in interrupted tasks. Interruptions are a major source of errors of omission in cockpit operations (Dismukes et al., 1998) and in aviation maintenance (Hobbs & Williamson, 2003), and interruptions may contribute to errors of...

What Does the Age Prospective Memory Paradox Mean

For an experimental psychologist, the key message from this chapter may be the finding that older adults perform poorly in PM tasks in the lab, because it is only in the laboratory that participants' performance can be experimentally controlled and monitored. So, for example, Dobbs and Reeves (1996) argued that outside the lab situation, participants will alter the PM task to suit their needs, and we can no longer draw any theoretical conclusions about the nature of any PM changes with age....

Monitoring And Vigilance

The recent interest in monitoring has helped to bring to the fore an inconsistency in the prospective memory literature. On the one hand, researchers suggest that vigilance can be used to accomplish prospective memory tasks (Baddeley & Wilkins, 1984 Brandimonte et al., 2001 Craik & Kerr, 1996 Maylor, 1996 Meacham & Leiman, 1982 Meier & Graf, 2000 cf. Dobbs & Reeves, 1996). On the other hand, researchers prescribe conditions to reduce or eliminate the possibility that vigilance...

Review Of Developmental Research On Prospective Memory

Research on children's prospective memory has primarily concentrated on two related and equally important questions First, what are the effects of age on prospective memory, both in terms of the earliest age at which prospective memory skills and the development of these skills in preschool and school-age children Second, do children possess metamemory knowledge about the best strategies for various everyday prospective memory tasks, and, if yes, how effectively can they use this knowledge in...

General Themes Unresolved Issues And An Internet Study

One common theme running through these chapters is the age-complexity effect, which refers to the tendency for age (and developmental) differences in performance to increase with the complexity of the task (see Salthouse, 1991, for discussion). Age-complexity is related to the reduced processing resources view whereby older adults and young children have fewer processing resources or less attentional capacity than young adults they are therefore particularly disadvan-taged in complex tasks that...

Prospective Memory in Other Neuropathological Diseases Multiple Sclerosis HIV and Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

Relevant Findings The first experimental investigation of prospective memory in patients with multiple sclerosis was carried out by Bravin, Kinsella, Ong, and Vowels (2000). Given that this disease has been found to result in deficits in retrospective memory and executive functioning, which could partly be due to dysfunctions of prefrontal and medial temporal lobe interactions, substantial deficits of the patients in prospective remembering were expected. Consistently, across two time-based...

The Four Phases of Prospective Remembering A Process Model

From a theoretical point of view, it has been argued that the term prospective memory is an umbrella term representing several distinct phases and cognitive processes involved in the realization of delayed intentions (McDaniel & Einstein, 2000). Kliegel, Martin, McDaniel, and Einstein (2002 see also Ellis, 1996) thus proposed a process model that disentangles the process of prospective remembering into four phases (a) intention formation the point at which the intention is formed, which...

The Nature of Real World Prospective Memory Tasks

Although the debate over whether prospective memory tasks are accomplished automatically has motivated a fair amount of prospective memory research, and while this work is important, it might be time to shift our focus somewhat. As mentioned earlier, the PAM theory and the multiprocess framework make similar predictions regarding when a cost would be demonstrated in many prospective memory tasks. Only cases involving a salient target, simple action, well-associated target, and action and focal...

TABLE 35 Target Checking Versus Retrieval Mode Predictions for Performance on the Ongoing Tasks Control Trials

Experimental First PM Instructions, Then Control Trials Experimental All 5 PM Instructions, Then Control Trials Note. More + signs indicate worse performance (i.e., more impairment, lower accuracy, and or higher latency) on any ongoing task dependent measure. PM prospective memory. If participants just instantiated a retrieval mode on the control trials in the prior experiment, then performance on the control trials should not be affected by this manipulation in this experiment. If participants...

Peter M Gollwitzer

Department of Psychology New York University and University of Konstanz magine the following scenario You need to remember to execute an important intention, such as turning off your cell phone before an important meeting. In the past, you may have been embarrassed by the failure to complete such an intention, thereby disturbing an entire room of colleagues, not to mention the invited speaker. Therefore, you are especially determined to successfully complete this goal. However, at the same...

Conclusion

The age-PM paradox is the repeated finding of a substantial age-related decline in performing many lab-based PM tasks, along with a substantial age-related improvement in PM tasks carried out in naturalistic settings. The limited empirical evidence available to date does not support the widespread assumption in the literature that this pattern reflects artefacts in the use of naturalistic methods. Current understanding of the role of memory aids, motivation, practice, and lifestyle in both...

Social Interaction Motivation And Prospective Memory

Our interaction with other people influences (and is influenced by) our memory capability not only when we recall information that was acquired in the past (retrospective memory), but also when we perform actions based on previously formed 1 Nominal groups are control groups formed by pooled individual performances (total nonredundant outputs) of an equal number of participants tested individually. intentions (prospective memory). In both cases, memory failures in social contexts are deeply...

Area 10 And Prospective Memory Human Lesion Evidence

Perhaps the easiest way of making a link between the functions of particular brain regions and prospective memory would be to find a series of people with circumscribed cerebral involvement who have either isolated PM impairments (i.e., show no impairment on any other kind of test), or show isolated impairments at different stages of remembering to carry out a delayed intention. However, to our knowledge this has not yet occurred. Of course, this could be because the appropriate patient has not...

Summary of PAM Theory

A delayed intention is performed, according to the PAM theory, in the following way. An individual call him or her the agent consciously forms a plan concerning a future action. A delay ensues during which the agent cannot maintain that plan as the focus of attention. By definition, the agent must consciously recollect the plan to act for the action to be an intention. An important distinguishing characteristic of the PAM theory concerns how this recollection occurs. An individual must make...

Habitual Tasks

Crews perform many tasks in the course of a flight, and many tasks involve multiple steps. Most of the tasks and many of the intermediate steps of the tasks are specified by written procedures and are normally performed in the same sequence. Thus, for experienced pilots, execution presumably becomes largely automatic and does not require a deliberate search of memory to know what to do next. Pilots do not need to form an episodic intention to perform each task and each action step rather, the...

Ten Years On Realizing Delayed Intentions

School of Psychology University of Reading, UK Our capacity to shape and direct our future behavior is of fundamental importance in the development, pursuit, and maintenance of an independent and autonomous lifestyle from early childhood to late adulthood. It is dependent, to a large extent, on our ability to enact intended actions at an appropriate moment in the future, in the absence of direct reminders to do so, and without the support of highly practiced action sequences triggered by...

Prospective Memory and Health Behaviors Context Trumps Cognition

WILSON and DENISE PARK The Beckman Institute University of Illinois Prospective memory is an extraordinarily important behavior in maintaining the fabric of one's everyday life. To maintain social and professional function, an individual needs to keep appointments and remember plans for social events. Prospective memory is also viewed as an important component of maintaining one's health. Not only must an individual remember to keep medical appointments, there is also a...

Prospective Memory in Alzheimers Disease

Overview Cognitive impairments that occur due to Alzheimer's disease or other forms of dementia have been well described in terms of retrospective memory deficits or executive dysfunction, with the predominant difficulties in retrospective memory, at least in earlier stages of the disease (Collie & Maruff, 2000 Duke & Kaszniak, 2000). The neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease is characterized by a widespread neuronal cell loss, together with an inflammatory response to the deposition of...

Prospective Memory in Substance Abuse

Overview Over the past decades, there has been an increasing use of recreational drugs in many countries. Cognitive deficits due to the abuse of drugs such as alcohol, MDMA (ecstasy), or cannabis have been well described in various domains (Parrott, 2001 Pope, 2002 B. Rodgers et al., 2005). A considerable number of studies have begun to address whether drug abusers have impaired prospective memory abilities. The hypothesis was tested that prospective memory is disrupted due to the abuse of...

R Key Dismukes

NASA Ames Research Center Moffett, California On the morning of August 31, 1988, Flight 1141, a Boeing 727, was moving slowly in a long taxi queue for departure from Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas. Because of the delay, the crew shut down the number three engine to conserve fuel. When the flight was fourth in line for takeoff, the crew restarted the engine and began running the checklists used to confirm that the airplane's systems were properly set. While they were running the checklists the air...

The State of the Superordinate Goal

Sheeran, Webb, and Gollwitzer (2005, Study 2) found that implementation intention effects are sensitive to the (even subliminal) activation of the superordinate goal. In other words, implementation intentions only affect behavior when the superordinate goal is activated. As a consequence, people who use implementation intentions to avoid forgetting to act on their goals should seek out situational contexts that implicitly or explicitly activate the respective goal. However, implementation...

Info

Nevertheless, all four patients reported in the literature were able to improve their performance on memory book use, and support of significant others could be reduced. Although the studies reported in the literature describe the alarms as successful in the long run, training is very time consuming because the retrospective memory load is very high that is, patients have to remember what they are supposed to do when the alarm goes off. Today, mobile phone alarms may easily be combined with...

TABLE 181 Items from the Martin and Park Environmental Demands MPED Questionnaire

How busy are you during an average day How often do you have too many things to do each day to actually get them all done How often do you find yourself rushing from place to place trying to get to appointments or to get things done How often are you so busy that you miss scheduled breaks or rest periods How often are you so busy that you miss your regular meal times How often do you rush out of the house in the mornings to get to where you need to be How often do you have so many things to do...

Empirical Support For The Pam Theory

Much of the supporting evidence for the PAM theory comes from examining performance on the ongoing activity. A second line of support comes from the application of multinomial modeling techniques. With respect to the former, consider that the PAM theory proposes that successful prospective memory performance requires resource-demanding preparatory attentional processes. If we assume that an individual has a limited pool of conscious capacity, and if the individual assigns some of these...

From Prospective Memory To The Gateway Hypothesis Of Ba 10 Function

In a series of experiments in our lab, we have investigated this possibility that BA 10 is sensitive to differences in the degree to which cognition is stimulus-oriented or stimulus-independent. If BA 10 supports a mechanism that enables us to either maintain thoughts in our head (i.e., stimulus-independent cognition) while doing something else, or switch between the thoughts in our head and attending to events in the environment (stimulus-oriented attending), then one would indeed expect that...

I

FIGURE 17.3 Reaction time latencies on ongoing lexical decision task trials in Experiment 2 as a function of condition. Bars represent standard error. (see Figure 17.3). Our results are in line with those found by Marsh, Hicks, Cook, Hansen & Pallos (2003), who also showed that there is cue interference when participants perform a vocal prospective memory response. Prospective memory performance was considerably lower in Experiment 2 (53 ) compared to Experiment 1 (82 ). It may be that...

Theory Of Monitoring

Before describing the theory, two points deserve mention. First, the theory is not inherently incompatible with any theoretical perspective that allows that monitoring can mediate prospective memory (e.g., the three models already described). Thus, the present theory of monitoring may complement the existing theories of prospective memory. Some ideas along these lines are offered in the last section of the chapter. Second, the focus of the experiments described here was monitoring rather than...

The Four Phases of Prospective Remembering An Empirical Paradigm

Most studies on time- or event-based prospective memory have employed prospective memory tasks that consist of a single, isolated act that has to be remembered and performed at appropriate points in the experiment, for example, to press a designated key on the computer keyboard whenever a prospective memory cue appears or at a specific time (e.g., Einstein & McDaniel, 1990 Einstein, McDaniel, Richardson, Guynn, & Cunfer, 1995 Einstein, Smith, McDaniel, & Shaw, 1997 Marsh & Hicks,...

From The Gateway Hypothesis Back To Prospective Memory

These results indicate that there may be a general principle for the functional organization of at least some parts of human brain BA 10. This view receives further support from a meta-analysis conducted by Gilbert, Spengler, Simons, Frith, and Burgess (2006). They analyzed the reaction times to paradigms from 104 PET fMRI studies, yielding 133 independent contrasts. The tasks that had provoked these activations came from a wide range of functions (e.g., memory, mentalizing, perception, and...

Implementation Intentions

In Experiment 4 of our line of experiments, we had two related objectives (a) to examine whether using a self-regulatory strategy known to enhance controlled processing would benefit prospective memory accuracy, and, more interestingly, (b) to examine whether enhancing prospective memory performance through the use of a self-regulatory strategy would come at a cost to ongoing task performance. Similar to questions posed in Marsh et al. (2005), we were interested in the relationship between cue...

Prospective Memory in Developmental Disorders

Overview There is currently little research on prospective memory in childhood and adolescence, and even fewer studies have investigated whether the development of prospective memory skills is negatively affected by psychopa-thologies such as autism or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD . In individuals with autism Ozonoff amp Jensen, 1999 Ozonoff amp McEvoy, 1994 Prior amp Hoffmann, 1990 Rumsey amp Hamburger, 1988 and in those with ADHD Willcutt, Doyle, Nigg, Faraone, amp...

The Preparatory Attentional And Memory Processes Theory

The definitions and distinctions already outlined provided an important starting point for the PAM theory Smith, 2003 Smith amp Bayen, 2004, 2005, 2006 Smith, McVay amp McConnell, Hunt, 2007 . These definitions lead to an important role for consciousness in the performance of delayed intentions. An individual must be conscious of the plan to perform an action in other words, the plan is in the focus of attention at both encoding, when the plan is formed, and at retrieval, when the action is...

Compensatory Strategies

When normal participants try to remember to fulfil some kind of delayed intention of importance to them, most often they say they would use some kind of compensatory strategy external aids timers, writing on their hands, placing something in view, asking someone to remind them, making notes, etc. , internal aids rehearsal, imagery, and stating aloud the reheasal of the intention to be remembered or conjunction aids planning or rearranging the day, and tying intention to events Penningroth, 2005...

Everyday Prospective Memory

Our ethnographic study revealed the structure of prospective memory situations in the cockpit, but too few errors were observed for analysis. Review of accident and incident reports provided plentiful examples of errors, but did not provide access to the pilots involved. We recently completed a diary study of everyday prospective memory to explore the structure of these real-world tasks, to compare them to aviation prospective memory tasks, and to take advantage of individuals' abilities to...

Major Issues And Directions For Future Research Toward A Clinical Neuropsychology Of Prospective Memory

Since the publication of the last edition of this volume in 1996, quite a number of studies have been conducted to examine the effects of different clinical conditions on prospective memory. As can be seen in Table 13.1, only 7 of the 61 studies reviewed in this chapter were published in 1996 or before. In this section, we attempt to integrate the findings of the studies reviewed already and postulate the potential explanations or mechanisms for prospective memory impairment. In addition, we...

Interleaving Tasks and Monitoring

While performing ongoing tasks pilots are often required to monitor the status of other tasks. Some tasks, such as the requirement to report passing through an altitude, previously discussed, involve monitoring for an event that is known will occur. In other situations, pilots must monitor for events that occur infrequently, if at all. For example, when flying in visual meteorological conditions, pilots must scan outside the cockpit windows for other airplanes that might be on a conflicting...

Rebekah E Smith

Department of Psychology The University of Texas at San Antonio An agent who is contemplating what to do at a given time sees the future of the world from that time on branching out into many alternatives, and he also sees that those alternatives can be tied to the past just by his making certain instantiations true. Those selected instantiations become special just by their being selected they are the junctions at which the agent's causality can connect the future containing the truth of the...

Morris Moscovitch

Department of Psychology University of Toronto imagine I was invited to discuss the papers because of my very early contribution to this area, which consisted of a single paragraph describing a real-life experiment on memory and aging Moscovitch, 1982 . In that study, Nina Minde21 found that older adults were as good or better than younger adults at keeping phone appointments. This age advantage on naturalistic tasks as compared to an age deficiency on laboratory-based tasks is now known as the...

Questionnaires

Questionnaires are the most frequently assigned method for the evaluation of prospective memory, although there are only few questionnaires that concentrate only on prospective memory. Instead, some items concerning prospective remembering were embedded into general questionnaires concerning memory in everyday life for an overview, see Shum et al., 2002 . In the following, only those procedures are described that permit a more comprehensive evaluation. All the questionnaires reported indicate...