Repression the Unconscious Mind and Unconsciousness

From a phenomenological and descriptive point of view, it is my view that Freud's Id energies derive from phylogenetic biological mechanisms, whose contents therefore have not been acquired by the individual. They do not contribute to consciousness as there is no neocortical involvement. Cautiously Freud writes something similar in the last paragraph of The unconscious 45 If inherited mental formations exist in the human being-something analogous to instinct in animals-these constitute the...

Decreased Dreaming Cessation of Dreaming

In 1883 Charcot described a patient who lost the ability to recall the visual mental images of his dreams in association with deficit in revisualiza-tion during wakefulness (visual irreminiscence) 42 . In 1887 Wilbrand presented a case of global cessation of dreaming in association with prosopagnosia (inability to recognize familiar faces) after infarction in the occipitotemporal region (Fig. 2) 43 . The terms Charcot-Wilbrand syndrome (CWS) and anoneira were used to describe cessation of...

Prediction and Psychoanalysis

I am a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst interested in how neuroscience can enhance the understanding and treatment of psychological problems 21-24 . Psychoanalysis is a powerful tool in the treatment of long-standing maladaptive thought patterns, belief systems, as well as emotional and behavioral responses within interpersonal situations. Psychoanalysis has benefited from the infusion of ideas from other disciplines, regarding such diverse topics as child development,...

How to Bring the Unrepressed Unconscious to the Surface in Analysis

Probably the most interesting question from the clinical viewpoint is how in the analytical relationship can we gain access to the early unrepressed unconscious, which cannot be recalled The discovery of the implicit memory and the unrepressed unconscious leads us to pay close attention to certain aspects of the transference and the elements of dreams that lend themselves to psychic configuration 75 , to narrow the gap created by lack of figurative forms in the unrepressed early unconscious....

Dementia

Visual hallucinations are common in Alzheimer's disease (about 20 of cases) and dementia with Lewy bodies (> 50 of cases) 119, 127, 128 . They correlate with cognitive decline and worse outcome (institutional-ization, death) 129 . Alzheimer's disease can also lead to a reduction in the frequency and contents of dreaming 50, 51 . A few patients are observed to show improved language skills during sleep than wakefulness 130 . Treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors may induce vivid...

The Intentional Attunement Hypothesis

Our seemingly effortless capacity to conceive of the acting bodies inhabiting our social world as goal-oriented persons like us depends on the constitution of a we-centric shared meaningful space. I have proposed that this shared manifold space 13, 15, 19-21 can be characterized at the functional level as embodied simulation, a specific mechanism, probably constituting a basic functional feature by means of which our brain body system models its interactions with the world. The mirror neuron...

The Neurosciences Contribute to Dreams

At the beginning of the last century, when Freud had already published his Interpretation of Dreams, European psychology seemed more interested in sleep than in dreaming. At that time Henry Pieron 30 defined sleep as a physiological state that was periodically necessary, its cyclic pattern relatively independent of outside conditions, during which there was a complete break in the complex sensory and motor relations between the subject and his environment. This past century has in fact seen...

Tranche of Analysis

I'm glad I've been able to rewrite my personal history and tell myself the whole story. This was Mrs. R's opening remark one day in her third year of thrice-weekly analysis with me, which she had started after 10 years in the hands of another analyst. Mrs. R. is a sophisticated 50-year-old lady from an upper-middle-class intellectual family. She teaches, under contract, at a Milanese university and came to me after her earlier analysis, dissatisfied at how that first approach had gone, and...

Repression as a Specialized Defense Mechanism

Freud clearly emphasized the role of repression in reducing psychological conflict and anxiety, and thus also emphasized the emotional content of the memories being repressed. Based on this, one might argue that because our experiments do not present psychologically threatening material, the effects cannot reflect true repression. It is important, however, to distinguish the mechanism underlying repression from the use to which that mechanism is put psychological defense. I have argued 10 that...

Models of Emotional Lateralization Based on the Componential and Hierarchical Organization of Emotions

Earlier in this chapter I stated that two general models of emotional lateralization (the different hemispheric specialization and the right hemisphere dominance hypothesis), are today considered as the most important models in this area, although the great majority of studies conducted both on normal subjects and with brain-damaged patients have supported the right hemispheric dominance hypothesis (see 29-30 for reviews). I am therefore focusing my attention on this second hypothesis, taking...

Stroke and Other Focal Brain Diseases

Following the seminal papers by Charcot and Wilbrand on cessation of dreaming 42, 43 , a few authors reported on dream characteristics of patients with stroke 44,46,48,105-107 . More recently, Hobson has given a first-person account of abnormal visual percepts in association with total insomnia and dream suppression following a lateral medullary stroke 108 . The most extensive work on dreaming in patients with focal brain damage has been performed by Solms 45 . Out of the 332 patients with...

The Contribution of Molecular Biology

Current biological research has added much important information to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying information storage. Molecular biology works on the assumption that memory operates through biochemical-molecular and structural events which still fall within the framework of the neuronal conjunction points that Sherrington defined in 1906 as synapses. Early electrophysiological investigations of learning showed, for example, that if one applies high-frequency...

Affectionless Control and Anxiety

The caring environment can induce anxiety and depression. The Australian researcher Gordon Parker described a model of parental caring which involved emotional coldness and a tendency to control the children, termed affectionless control, which he maintained could induce depression in the infants 53-55 . He also devised a questionnaire, the parental bonding instrument (PBI), for administration to the children of these parents, asking them to describe their parents' attitude to them, on the...

Myths

The image of the fetus which most readily comes to the public's mind is that of the one in early first trimester.Visualization on an ultrasound scan of the fetal body in its entirety is only possible up to 19-20 weeks. Beyond this gestational age, only parts of the fetal body can be observed at any one time. A third trimester fetus merely visible in segments is clearly less glamorous and less prone to being illustrated in nonspecialist publications. As will be described, early fetuses move a...

Mirror Neurons and the Understanding of Intentions

When an individual starts a movement aimed to attain a goal, such as picking up a pen, he she has clear in mind what he she is going to do, for example writing a note on a piece of paper. In this simple sequence of motor acts, the final goal of the whole action is present in the agents' mind and is somehow reflected in each motor act of the sequence. The action intention, therefore, is set before the beginning of the movements. This also means that when we are going to execute a given action,...

Brain Metabolism Activation During Sleep and Dreaming

Neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET), singlephoton emission computed tomography (SPECT) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 32-35 have shown, in line with neurophys-iological observations, different patterns of brain activation during the different states of being (wakefulness, NREM sleep, REM sleep). REM sleep is characterized by sustained neuronal activity, high cerebral energy requirements and high cerebral blood flow. Compared to wakefulness, in most...

Dream Theories before 1953

In ancient culture dreams were often considered to be of supernatural origin, allowing direct communication with the gods and capable of providing hints of the future (prophetic and premonitory dreams). Among Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, dream interpreters, working in such places as the oracles of Delphi, were valued, powerful figures. The Egyptians (the oldest known book about dreams dates back to the twelfth dynasty, 2000 BC), when suffering from disease or infertility, used to go to these...

Emotions and Memory

I would like to mention briefly some of the most recent contributions on mental functions that the neurosciences have investigated with experimental methods and that form the bulk of the discussion in this book. I shall start with the problem of emotions, because of the implications that these have for general psychology (especially concerning the organization of memory) and for the theory and practice of psychoanalysis. After Darwin, who in 1872 laid the basis for a scientific treatment of the...

Antenatal and Neonatal Life

Finally, I would like to make some remarks drawing on research on the origins of human mental activity starting from intrauterine life and extending into the first years of childhood. There has been strong interest in fetal psychic life for many years among the international psychoanalytical community 83 . Particular interest has been shown in the different physiological components of the fetus sensori-motor activity, general behavior, and integrative functions, especially related to the...

Paranoid and Depressive Anxieties

The broad variety of clinical psychoanalysis situations includes a range of forms of pathogenic anxiety, reviewed by Gabbard 7 . Freud, Melanie Klein, Winnicott, and Kohut have all dealt with the topic, and this is clearly not the place to attempt a summary. However, while supporters of the conflict theory, including Freud and Klein, have worked to define the intrapsychic facets of anxiety, the deficit theory, upheld by thinkers like Winnicott and Kohut, focuses more on the relational aspect of...

From Mirror Neurons to Empathy

There is a rapidly growing neuroscientific literature supporting the idea that we understand other people's behavior and thoughts, in part, by putting ourselves in the mental shoes of others 21-26 . Indeed, several authors have proposed that the simulative processes originally discovered and described in the domain of actions could constitute a basic characteristic of our social brain and of our ability to understand and empathize with others 23-26 . Empathy is the ability to have a direct...

Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease

Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a hereditary, occasionally sporadic prion disease with prominent neurodegenerative changes affecting mainly the anteroventral and mediodorsal thalamic nuclei the disease was described in 1986 151 . The clinical features of FFI consist in progressive insomnia, sympathetic overactivation (perspiration, tachycardia, hypertension, evening pyrexia) and motor disturbances (dysarthria, myoclonus, disturbed coordination). Patients typically show peculiar episodes of...

Site of Emotional Memory Storage Hypothesis

This alternative view is also derived from animal studies, specifically those involving the fear conditioning paradigm. It proposes that the observed plasticity in the amygdala during fear conditioning 39, 119 represents the mnesic trace of the acquired emotional information and thus demonstrates the necessary involvement of the amygdala in the storage and retrieval of emotional memories 36,116, 120 . Further evidence comes from lesion and temporary inactivation studies 121 which show that an...

Motor System and Mirror Neurons

Recent research in nonhuman and human primates has pointed at the role of motor systems in higher-order cognitive processes 92-94 . Particularly relevant to the present discussion is the discovery in the mon 2 Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a powerful, noninvasive neurophysiological technique based on Faraday's principles of electromagnetic induction. A brief pulse of current flowing through a coil of wire generates a magnetic field. If the magnitude of this magnetic field changes...

Epilepsy

Epileptic hallucinations are usually brief, simple, stereotyped and fragmentary associated with other seizure manifestations such as altered awareness, motor activity and automatisms 54 . Less commonly, epileptic hallucinations are complex (dream-like) or, in seizures of temporal or parietal origin, consist of autoscopic experiences 132 . Recurrent epileptic nightmares have been reported in temporal lobe epilepsy as well as a post-stroke event 133,134 . Scheffer et al. described a patient with...

Models of Memory in Classical Cognitive Science

Fifteen years ago we discussed these questions in a paper in the International Review of Psychoanalysis, analyzing three key scenes of a psychoanalysis 25 . In these analyses we tried to start an interdisciplinary dialogue between classical cognitive science and psychoanalysis on questions relating to memory processes. In 1983 we had begun to refer to the recent approaches to memory-which were much discussed at the time and were expounded by Schank among others in his book Dynamic Memory 60 -to...

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

This disorder was formally first described in 1986 82 , although single reports had described features of this entity already before. RBD presents with dramatic, often violent, motor behaviors occurring during sleep in association with vivid, frightening dreams. Since RBD occurs during REM sleep, it typically appears in the second half of night-time sleep, when REM sleep predominates. Injuries and assaults on bed partners have been reported to occur in up to 32 and 64 of patients, respectively...

Memory and Psychoanalysis

The concept of memory runs through the whole of Freud's work, starting from his Project for a Scientific Psychology in 1895 35 , where he offered a model of the relation between mind and brain, and-using language that might appear to be neurophysiological but is in fact metaphorical-outlines the new psychology he was busy discovering at that time 36 . Freud starts out from the idea that memory is one of the basic characteristics of the nervous system, meaning the faculty of undergoing a...

Emotions and Anxiety

Fear, joy, sadness, anger, surprise, and disgust are all basic emotions, widely considered to be innate. On the topic of primary emotions, Guido Gainotti 12 agrees with the distinction made by Oatley and Johnson-Laird 13 between the emotional system and the cognitive system. The former is defined as a primitive emergency system that processes a restricted number of signals and promptly evokes unconscious, automatic responses the latter is considered a more developed and complex system of...

Psychopathological Implications of Intentional Attunement Autism

A similar proposal can be made for the autistic syndrome in children. The autistic syndrome is a severe and chronic developmental disorder characterized by social and communicative deficits and by a reduced interest in the environment, towards which restricted and often stereotyped initiatives are taken 75 . To be an autistic child means, with variable degrees of severity, to be incapable of establishing meaningful social communications and bonds, to establish visual contact with the world of...

Conclusions

Dreaming changes in patients with neurological disorders have been poorly studied, although their frequency is not negligible (e.g., in Parkinson's syndromes, stroke and narcolepsy). Despite the little attention that neurologists typically pay to dream reports, their assessment can be of diagnostic interest (e.g., REM sleep behavior disorder, visual hallucinations), have prognostic implications (e.g., visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease) and be a source of major distress for patients...

Psychopathological Implications of Intentional Attunement Schizophrenia

All of our social transactions depend on mutual understanding. Simultaneously, however, interpersonal intelligibility is accompanied by the capacity of to establish clear-cut boundaries, carving out a self from the outside world. Being oneself is experienced as being similar to other selves, while simultaneously experiencing its unique character. In schizophrenia, self and other are no longer mutually interrelated, but tend to diverge and crystallize into segregated, incomprehensible and...

Parkinsons Syndromes

Changes in dream frequency and contents and the occurrence of nightmares, hallucinations and RBD (see above) are frequently seen in patients with Parkinson's syndromes. A correlation with the presence of other sleep-wake disturbances, cognitive changes, axial motor symptoms and medication (dopaminergic drugs, anticholinergics) has been recognized 55,118,119 . Visual hallucinations are reported by about 25-50 of patients with Parkinson's syndromes and predict Lewy body pathology with involvement...

Sleep Disorders Narcolepsy

Dream Disorders

Narcolepsy is a chronic debilitating disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hallucinations and sleep paralysis 56 . Narcolepsy is believed to be caused by an autoimmune destruction of hypothalamic hypocretin-producing neurons 60 . Hallucinations, dreams, nightmares, arousal disorders, and RBD are more frequent in narcoleptics than in the normal population (Fig. 5). In two recent systematic studies nightmares (54 ) and life-long hallucina- tions (81 ) were found to be...

Insomnia

Insomnia is the most common sleep-related complaint and affects up to 47 of patients attending general practices 95 . A substantial number of investigations have suggested that in healthy individuals a significant correlation exists between the frequency of dream recall, frequency of nocturnal awakenings and low sleep quality 96-98 . Schredl et al. have recently confirmed that insomniacs' dream recall frequency is elevated and dream reports are longer 99 . Dreams of insomniacs are characterized...

Clinical Forms of Anxiety

Among the forms of pathological anxiety, the DSM-IV-TR 1 distinguishes, in addition to generalized anxiety, phobias, panic attacks, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). There are some theories that since OCD involves structural and functional organic deficits, it is questionable whether it can be classified as an anxiety or depressive disorder 2 . The ICD-10 3 in fact classifies this disorder separately from the other manifestations often associated...

References

Sci Am, May 58-62 2. Goldberg A 2004 Ongoing discussions on David Milrod's The concept of the Self and the self-representation. Neuropsychoanalysis 6 91-92 3. Oliver Turnbull 2004 Founders ofneuro-psychoanalysis. Subject Mortimer Ostow. Neuropsychoanalysis 6 209-215 4. Green A 2001 Advice to Psychoanalysts Cognitive psychology is good for you. Neuropsychoanalysis 3 16-19 5. Whitehead AN 1967 Adventures of ideas first published 1933 . Prentice-Hall, U.S.A. 6....

Two Clinical Vignettes

In this first vignette, I will describe aspects of three sessions which illustrate the emergence of feeling memories following a head injury. Peter is a talented middle-aged married man in one of the caring professions. His father was a gentle, scholarly man and his mother a kind, self-effacing woman who suffered from bouts of severe depression which required admission to mental hospital at irregular intervals during Peter's childhood this meant that he was required to stay with relatives for...

Migraine and Cluster Headache

Migraine aura is well recognized as a cause of simple visual hallucinations complex dream-like visual hallucinations are less common. They are seen more frequently in migraine coma and in familial hemiplegic migraine. Rarely migraine-associated hallucinations may be of purely auditory nature, possibly reflecting a dysfunction of the temporal lobe due to ischemia 142, 143 . Olfactory, gustatory and other more complex hallucinations such as temporal-visual distortions have all been reported 144,...

REM Sleep and Its Control by the Brainstem The REMDream Equation

Brainstem Ppt

In search of an objective measure of the process of falling asleep, and motivated by an article on blinking in the wake-sleep transition 15 , in 1953 Kleitman and Aserinsky described the presence of rapid eye movements REMs in deep sleep 16, 17 . They observed that REMs appear approximately 90 min after sleep onset, are associated with desynchro-nized cortical low-voltage fast EEG activity and a significant increase and instability in heart and respiratory rates, and occur at regular intervals...

Childhood Amnesia Dreams Dream Content and the Fragility of Dream Recall

Childhood amnesia refers to the observation that juveniles and adults have difficulty in recalling events and experiences that happened before the age of about 4 years, although very often their behavior indicates that they do have some knowledge of these experiences. Dreaming refers to any image, thought, or emotion attributed by the individual to the condition of sleep, before awakening. This sleep condition consists of various sleep stages that are manifested by repeated changes of the...

Neurophysiology of Nursing Integrated with Psychoanalysis

The neurophysiology of nursing as related to incipient mental organization of the infant thus consists of an entity that entails three major elements 1 the role of regulation of subcortical centers, 2 the capability to perform active oral muscular work first reflexively and later volition-ally and 3 an incipient mental image of the nursing procedures at the Fig. 2. Surface electromyogram measured from under the jaw shows the rhythmic sucking activity of a newborn upperpanel . Each muscular...