Comparison with Behaviorism and Psychoanalysis

It is useful to compare Lewin's field theory with the two other major theories of the time behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Lewin's field theory can be summarized by the equation B f(P,E), or, Behavior is a function of person and environment. In other words, behavior is function of the life space of a total environment as perceived by the individual. In psychoanalytic thought, behavior is a function of the history of the individual. For example, past childhood experience is supposed to have a...

Tests and Measures of Individual Differences

The scope of psychology's fields of specialization is great. The professionals who work in these areas strive to help humans know, understand, and help themselves. To accomplish this, psychologists use numerous tests to help them ascertain specific information about an individual, a group of people, or a particular population. Ability tests measure multiple aptitudes, creativ ity, achievement, and intelligence levels. Psychologists may perform occupational and clinical assessments. Also...

Single Case Versus Multiple Case Studies

One of Yin's dimensions for classifying case studies involves single-case versus multiple-case studies. In some instances, only a single-case study is necessary or at times even possible this is true when a unique case comes along that presents a valuable source of information. For example, a social scientist wanting to explore the emotional impact of a national tragedy on elementary-school children might choose to study the Challenger space shuttle disaster or the World Trade Center attacks,...

Method of Treatment in Psychoanalysis

A person who goes to a psychoanalyst for consultation usually meets with the analyst at least three times face-to-face before the analyst recommends psy choanalysis. Sometimes the patient and analyst meet for several weeks, months, or years in psychoanalytic psychotherapy they decide upon psychoanalysis if they identify problems that are unlikely to be solved by less intensive treatment. Once they begin psychoanalysis, the analyst and patient usually meet four or five times per week for...

Harlows Experiments

Perhaps the most famous psychological experiments on animals were those by Harry Harlow in the 1950's. Harlow was studying rhesus monkeys and breeding them in his own laboratory. Initially, he would separate infant monkeys from their mothers. Later, he discovered that, in spite of receiving adequate medical care and nutrition, these infants exhibited severe behavioral symptoms They would sit in a corner and rock, mutilate themselves, and scream in fright at the approach of an experimenter, a...

Humanistic and Existential Phenomenological Perspectives

Since the 1920's, humanistic and existential traditions have focused on the human being as a whole, and division into parts or structures is resisted insofar as it leads to dehumanizing the person. Thus, the self as such is often renamed or deemphasized in these theories. Gordon Allport (1897-1967), an American psychologist, used the concept of proprium to describe the unique, holistic organization of personality and awareness that develops over the life span, culminating in ownership of one's...

Challenges to Freudian Theory

Over the years, many aspects of Freudian theory have been challenged. Freud's notion that penis envy is a primary motivator in the female personality was challenged by Karen Horney, who believed that, if it existed, a woman's envy was related to the male's privileged role in society. Freud's idea that the clitoral orgasm is immature and must be surrendered for the vaginal orgasm at puberty spurred work by William Masters and Virginia Johnson, who concluded, after much rigorous research, that...

Pain and Euphoria

The experience of pain or the seeking of euphoria as causes of substance use disorders can be measured physically or can be perceived by the individual without obvious physical indicators. The relative importance ofpain and euphoria in determining the development and maintenance of substance use disorders requires consideration of the contributions of at least five potential sources of behavioral and physical status genetic predisposition, dysregulation during development, dysregulation from...

Obesity

Eating disorders were identified as early as ancient Roman times, when banqueters gorged themselves, then induced vomiting. Some of the early Christian saints were anorexic. However, eating disorders only emerged as an area of social and medical concern in the second half of the twentieth century. Persons with eating disorders have a distorted body image and unrealistic ideas about weight. Although such disorders are found primarily among young, middle- to upper-middle-class, well-educated...

Sources for Further Study

Mobraaten, John J. Sharp, and Muriel T. Davisson. Transgenic and Knockout Databases Behavioral Profiles of Mouse Mutants. Physiology and Behavior 73 (2001) 675-689. A summary of an ongoing project to construct a database of genetically engineered mice designed to facilitate the dissemination offindings among researchers. The article contains an exhaustive reference section on mutant mice and their behavioral and physiological profiles. Cohen, Neil J., and...

Road Rage and Air Rage

Two of the most common forms of offensive aggression in modern society are road rage and air rage. Road rage, which generally occurs on crowded, multilane highways, is often committed by otherwise civilized individuals who, when behind the wheel of a car that weighs more than a ton, become irrational. If someone cuts them off in traffic, drives slowly in the lane ahead of them, or commits some other perceived roadway insult, perpetrators of road rage may bump the rear of car ahead of them, pass...

Consciousness Altered States

Type of psychology Consciousness Field of study Cognitive processes The investigation of altered states of consciousness began in psychology with the recognition that consciousness is not a fixed, unvarying state but is in a continual state of flux. Consciousness can be altered by many chemical and nonchemical means, and there is some evidence to indicate that certain altered states are necessary for normal psychological functioning. hypnagogic and hypnopompic states restricted environmental...

Schizophrenia

Fields of study Models of abnormality schizophrenias Schizophrenia is one of the most severe and potentially devastating of all psychological disorders. (Over the years, a variety of theoretical explanations, sometimes poorly supported by direct experimental evidence, have been proposed. Current empirical research supports the operation of genetic factors in schizophrenia and suggests that such factors may act in concert with environmental factors during early development to elevate the risk...

Serotonin

The modern term autism was originated by Leo Kanner in the 1940's. In Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact (1943), he described a group of autistic children he viewed them as much more similar to one another than to schizophrenics, with whom they generally had been associated. Until that time, the classical definition for autism (still seen in some dictionaries) was a form of childhood schizophrenia characterized by acting out and withdrawal from reality. Kanner believed that these...

Intelligence and Guidance

Another common use of an intelligence test is to help an examinee determine specific areas of ability or aptitude which might be useful in selecting a career route. As reported in Aiken, a college senior was given the Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (O-LSAT, Advanced Form R) just before her twenty-second birthday. She planned to enroll in a program in a graduate business school and work toward an M.B.A. degree. The O-LSAT is designed to gauge general mental ability, and it includes...

Evolution of Questionnaires

As mentioned above, one of the first attempts by experimental psychologists to study attitudes and behaviors by means of the interview was that of the Kinsey group in the 1930's. At about that same time, Louis Thurstone, an experimental social psychologist, formalized and popularized the first questionnaire methodology for attitude measurement. Thurstone devised a set of questionnaires, or scales, that have been widely used for decades. He is considered by many to be the father of attitude...

Freudian Approach

Sigmund Freud, who said that understanding anxiety would be bound to throw a flood of light on our whole mental existence, had two theories of anxiety, an early one, in 1917, and a later one, in 1926. In the early theory, libido (mental energy, often equated with sexual drive) builds up until it is discharged by some pleasurable activity. Sometimes the energy cannot be discharged, for example, when the sexual object is not attainable or is morally unacceptable. This undischarged energy is...

Social Comparison Theory

The value of obtaining information through affiliating with others is suggested by social comparison theory. Social comparison is the process of comparing oneself to others in determining how to behave. According to Leon Festinger, who developed social comparison theory in 1954, all people have beliefs, and it is important to them that their beliefs be correct. Some beliefs can be objectively verified by consulting a reference such as a dictionary or a standard such as a yardstick. Others are...

Case Studies and Therapy Techniques

The following two case studies of phobias illustrate their onset, development, and the various treatment approaches typically used. These studies are fictionalized composites of the experiences of actual clients. Ellen P. entered an anxiety disorders clinic requesting large amounts of tranquilizers. She revealed that she wanted them to enable her to fly on airplanes if she could not fly, she would probably lose her job as a sales representative. Ellen described an eight-year history of a fear...

Cognitive and Stress Theories

A different approach to understanding depression has been put forward by cognitive theorists. According to Aaron Beck, in Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders (1976), cognitive distortions cause many, if not most, of a person's depressed states. Three of the most important cognitive distortions are arbitrary inference, overgeneralization, and magnification and minimization. Arbitrary inference refers to the process of drawing a conclusion from a situation, event, or experience when...

Stress

Fields of study Biology of stress critical issues in stress stress and illness The human body contains a number of regulatory mechanisms that allow it to adapt to changing conditions. Stressful events produce characteristic physiological changes that are meant to enhance the likelihood ofsurvival. Because these changes sometimes present a threat to health rather than serving a protective function, researchers seek to determine relationships among stressors, their physiological effects, and...

Relationship to Physiology and Health

Research has demonstrated that there is considerable variability across individuals in their physiological response patterns, both at rest and in response to various situational stimuli or laboratory manipulations. Evidence indicates that part of this variability across individuals may, in some cases, be attributable to certain personality traits or characteristic patterns of behavior. Furthermore, research suggests that these personality traits may also be related to the development of...

Set point

Primary motives are generated by innate biological needs that must be met for survival. These motives include hunger, thirst, and sleep. Hunger has been studied extensively, yet there is still uncertainty as to exactly how this drive works. A large body of research about the physiological analysis of hunger has led to the identification of important differences between physical hunger and psychological hunger. Physical hunger theories assume that the body's physiological mechanisms and systems...

Adaptive and Maladaptive Functions

Stress has many important adaptive functions. The experience of stress and learning how to cope with adversity is an essential aspect of normal growth and development. Coping strategies learned in particular situations must be generalized appropriately to new situations. Exposure to chronic stress that cannot be coped with effectively can have severe negative consequences. Work by pioneering stress researchers such as Hans Selye brought attention to the physiological changes produced by...

Role of the Family

Cultural patterns are replicated and transmitted primarily in family environments. Ideally, a family provides the warmth and nurturance that prepares children to face the world with confidence. When parents have struggled unsuccessfully with the culture, however, they create the conditions that Karen Horney. (Courtesy of Marianne Horney Eckardt, M.D.) lead to inadequate parenting. In its most extreme form, the competitiveness of the larger culture leads to child abuse, but it can also lead to...

Control and Helplessness

Locus of control refers to the location where one believes control over life events originates. An external locus of control is outside oneself an internal locus of control is within oneself. The individual who perceives that life events are the result of luck, or are determined by others, is assuming an external locus of control. The belief that one's efforts and actions control one's own destiny reflects an internal locus of control. Internalizers are thought to be more likely to assume...

Measuring Stress

Stress reactions are measured in three broad ways by means of self-report, through behavioral observations, and on the basis of physiological arousal. The self-report technique is the technique most commonly used by behavioral scientists to evaluate subjective stress levels. The State Anxiety Scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, developed by psychologist Charles Spiel-berger, is one of the most widely used self-report measures of stress. Examples of items on this scale are I am tense, I...

Identification of Giftedness

Different percentages of the general population have been identified as gifted, depending on the definition of giftedness. Terman's use of IQ scores of 140 or above identified 1 percent of scorers as gifted. The current common indicator of intellectual giftedness is a score of 130 or above on a standardized, individually administered intelligence test, which is achieved by the top 2.5 percent of scorers. By the broader Marland definition, some form of which has been enacted through legislation...

Two Factor Theory

One influential behavioral approach to anxiety is O. Hobart Mowrer's two-factor theory. It uses the principles of Pavlovian learning in which two stimuli are presented, one after the other, and the response to the first changes because of the response automatically elicited by the second stimu-lus and operant conditioning learning in which a behavior increases or decreases depending on whether the behavior is followed by reward or punishment to explain fear and phobic avoidance, respectively....

Types of Dementia

Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and is responsible for 50 percent of all dementias. No direct cause has been identified, but it is thought that viruses, environmental toxins, and family history are involved. Definitive diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease can only be made on autopsy when neurofibrillary tangles are found in the brain. Vascular dementia generally affects people between the ages of sixty and seventy-five. It is estimated that 8 percent of individuals over...

Treatment

Treatment of persons with eating disorders can take place in an inpatient or an outpatient setting. Hospitalization is indicated for patients with severe malnutrition, serious medical complications, an increased risk of suicide, and those who are unable to care for themselves or have failed outpatient treatment. The first step in the treatment of anorexics must be restoring their body weight. This may require hospitalization. A system of carefully structured rewards for weight gain is often...

Understanding Negative Self Esteem

Understanding self-esteem has considerable practical importance in daily life. If it is believed that all successes come from external sources (luck or someone's pity), then good things coming from others can be seen as an attempt to degrade the individual or offer a bribe. People feeling this way relate to others in ajudgmental way and cause them to turn away. When others turn away, the person takes it as a signal that he or she was correct about his or her unworthiness, and the negative...

Origins and Significance

Theories about the origins of dreams can be divided into two main categories naturalistic and supernaturalistic. Proponents of naturalistic theories of dreaming believe that dreams result from either physiological activities or psychological processes. Aristotle was one of the first people to offer a physiological explanation for dreams. His basic thesis was that dreams are the afterimages of sensory experiences. A modern physiological approach to dreaming was put forth in the 1970's by J....

Amplification Method

Jung employed the method of amplification for interpreting dreams. This technique involved focusing repeatedly on the contents of the dream and giving multiple associations to them. Jung believed that the dream often is basically what it appears to be. This differs dramatically from Freudian interpretation, which requires the patient to associate dream elements with childhood conflicts. The amplification method can be applied to a dream reported by a graduate student in clinical psychology....

Biochemical Studies

Experimental evidence of biochemical abnormalities in the brain's dopa-mine neurotransmitter systems is, however, impressive. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in relieving the symptoms of schizophrenia, especially positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions. These drugs block dopa-mine receptors in the brain. Furthermore, the more powerfully the drugs bind to and block dopamine receptors, the smaller the effective dose that is necessary to produce a therapeutic result. Further...

Anxiety and Phobias

The emotional state most directly affected by stress is anxiety. In fact, the term state anxiety is often used interchangeably with the terms fear and stress to denote a transitory emotional reaction to a dangerous situation. Stress, fear, and state anxiety are distinguished from trait anxiety, which is conceptualized as a relatively stable personality disposition or trait. According to psychologist Charles Spielberger, people high in trait or chronic anxiety interpret more situations as...

Dream Content

Dream content varies depending on stage of sleep and time of night. Research has also revealed that characteristics of the dreamer and environmental factors can influence the nature of dreams. Three human characteristics that influence dreams are age, gender, and personality. It has been found that children are more likely to report dreams (probably because they experience more REM sleep), and their dreams are reported to have more emotional content, particularly nightmarish themes. Elderly...

Self Control Therapy

Self-control therapy for depression, developed by psychologist Lynn Rehm, is an approach to treating depression which combines the self-regulatory notions of behavior therapy and the cognitive focus of the cognitive behavioral approaches. Essentially, Rehm believes that depressed people show deficits in one or some combination of the following areas monitoring (selectively attending to negative events), self-evaluation (setting unrealistically high goals), and self-reinforcement (emitting high...

Clinical Approaches to Memory Disorders

Human memory is so important to daily life that any theory that could explain its structures and processes and thus potentially improve its functioning would be invaluable. Memory is inextricably tied to learning, planning, reasoning, and problem solving it lies at the core of human intelligence. None of the three theories is by itself sufficient to explain all the phenomena associated with memory. Over the years, a number of ideas have been developed in the attempt to improve memory...

Cluster C

Cluster C disorders include avoidant personality disorder, dependent personality disorder, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. The behavior of people with a cluster C personality disorder is described as anxious or fearful. People with avoidant personality disorder display a pervasive pattern of social discomfort and a fear of being disliked by others. Because of these feelings, a person with this disorder avoids social interactions with others. People with avoidant personality...

Nervous System Endocrine System Interactions

The link between the nervous and endocrine systems lies in two glands located between the cerebrum and the brain stem, the hypothalamus and the hypophysis (the pituitary gland). Electrical impulses from neurons in the cerebral cortex may activate the hypothalamus to release hormones that activate the hypophysis to release its hormones, which in turn activate or inactivate other endocrine glands throughout the body. These glands include the thyroid, parathyroids, thymus, pancreas, adrenals, and...

Importance of Childhood and Adolescence

An interest in self-esteem developed along with interest in psychological questions in general. Early psychologists such as Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, William James, and others all realized that an important part of what makes individuals think and act the way they do is determined by the early experiences that create their sense of self and self-esteem. Avery important aspect Feedback from parents plays a crucial role in the development of a child's self-esteem. (CLEO Photography) of...

Clinical Features

The disease that subsequently became known as Parkinson's disease was called shaking palsy by Parkinson. The shaking refers to the tremor which, although it is thought by many people to be invariably associated with Parkinson's disease, may be completely absent, or present to a minor degree, in some patients. Four symptoms which are present in many patients are a progressive tremor, bradykinesia and even akinesia, muscular rigidity, and loss of postural reflexes. There still is no specific test...

Structural Psychotherapy

Structural psychotherapy is a cognitive behavioral approach that derives from the work of two Italian mental health professionals, psychiatrist Vit-torio Guidano and psychologist Gianni Liotti. These doctors are strongly persuaded by cognitive psychology, social learning theory, evolutionary episte-mology, psychodynamic theory, and cognitive therapy. Guidano and Liotti suggest that for an understanding ofthe full complexity ofan emotional disorder and subsequent development ofan adequate model...

Stress Inoculation

Stress inoculation training incorporates several of the specific therapies already described. This procedure was developed by Meichenbaum. Stress inoculation training is analogous to being inoculated against disease. That is, it prepares patients to deal with stress-inducing events by teaching them to use coping skills at low levels of the stressful situation and then gradually to cope with more and more stressful situations. Stress inoculation training involves three phases conceptualization,...

State and Trait Emotions

Nevertheless, psychologists have developed numerous assessment instruments to study common emotions. (An assessment instrument is a method used to measure some psychological quality.) Because there are so many different emotions, the study of emotion requires the development of specific methods that can accurately measure each of the common emotions. The most popular method of measuring an emotion is a self-report questionnaire in which a person answers questions relevant to a particular...

Sociocultural model

Prehistoric humans believed that evil spirits, witchcraft, the full moon, or other supernatural forces caused mental disorders. In modern times, people have more naturalistic ideas. The models of abnormality can be divided into three types medical, psychological, and cultural. Medical models hold that mental disorders take on a psychological appearance, but the underlying problems are physical in nature. Psychological models hold that mental disorders are caused and then maintained by a...

Underlying Psychological Processes

Early theories of crowd behavior hypothesized that unruly crowds were made up of criminals or the mentally deficient. Proponents of this perspective assumed that crowd behavior could be explained by the makeup of the individual personalities of people in the crowd and that certain kinds of people were more likely to be found in a crowd. Le Bon provided a more psychological analysis of crowd behavior, recognizing that even people of high intelligence could become members of an unruly crowd. He...

Twin studies

In 1969, educational psychologist Arthur Jensen published an article in the Harvard Educational Review titled How Much Can We Boost I.Q. and Scholastic Achievement He attempted to explain multiple findings that whites, on the average, outperform blacks by about 15 points on intelligence quotient (IQ) tests. His major conclusion was that racial differences in intelligence are primarily attributable to heredity and that whites, as a racial group, are born with abilities superior to those of...

Hunger Regulation

The desire to regulate hunger has resulted in a wide variety of approaches and techniques, including professional diet centers, programs, and clinics self-help books and magazines diet clubs and support groups self-help classes and diet doctors. Many people have benefited from psychotherapy in an effort to understand and control their hunger regulation mechanisms. Group therapy is one of the most successful forms of psychotherapy for food abusers. Types of group therapy vary greatly and include...

Mixed Receptive Expressive Language Disorder DSM code 31532

Scores from a battery of standardized measures of receptive and expressive language development substantially below those from standardized measures of nonverbal intellectual capacity Symptoms include those for Expressive Language Disorder as well as difficulty understanding words, sentences, or specific types of words (such as spatial terms) Receptive and expressive language difficulties interfere significantly with academic or occupational achievement or with social communication Criteria for...

Personality Types and Freedom Escape

Fromm described five personality types representing an escape from freedom. The authoritarian person reduces anxiety and insecurity by fusing himself or herself with another person or a religious, political, or economic institution. Fromm distinguished between sadistic and masochistic authoritarians The sadistic type needs to dominate (and often hurt and humiliate) others, while the masochistic type needs to submit to the authority of others. The sadist and the masochist are similar in that...

History of the Concept of Schizophrenia

The disorders that are now called schizophrenia were first characterized in the nineteenth century. Emil Kraepelin first grouped these disorders, referring to them by the collective name dementia praecox, in 1893. Many early neurologists and psychiatrists thought these dementias were organic conditions. This view changed, however, after Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler published his classic work on the disorder in 1911. Bleuler proposed that the primary characteristic of the condition was a...

Stress and Control

Research findings have supported Seligman's suggestions. For example, psychologists Ellen Langer and Judith Rodin told a group of elderly nursing home residents that they could decide what they wanted their rooms to look like, when they wanted to go see motion pictures, and with whom they wanted to interact. A second, comparable group of elderly residents, who were randomly assigned to live on another floor, were told that the staff would care for them and try to keep them happy. It was found...

Psychoactive Drugs

The use of psychoactive drugs is a common method for altering consciousness. These drugs are chemical substances that act on the brain to create psychological effects and are typically classified as depressants, stimulants, narcotics (opiates), hallucinogens, or antipsychotics. Several drugs, such as nicotine, caffeine, and alcohol, are so much a part of the lifestyle in modern society that users may not even think of them as drugs. The use of many psy-choactive drugs can lead to physical or...

Causes of Eating Disorders

No single cause has been identified for eating disorders. However, nearly all eating disorders begin with dieting to lose weight. Because these disorders are found almost exclusively in the developed world, where food is plentiful and where thinness in women is idealized, it appears that social and cultural Anorexia nervosa is a body-image disorder in which fear of being fat results in undereating and other behaviors that lead to emaciation and, if unchecked, death. (Hans & Cassidy, Inc.)...

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Type of psychology Psychopathology Field of study Anxiety disorders Obsessions and compulsions are the cardinal features of a chronic anxiety disorder known as obessive-compulsive disorder. The identification of repetitive, anxiety-provoking thoughts known as obsessions and of associated compulsive, ritualistic behaviors is critical in the diagnosis and assessment of this debilitating condition. Obsessive thinking and urges to engage in ritualistic compulsive behaviors are common phenomena that...

Call to Embrace Positive Freedom

In summary, Fromm argued that the average person in Western industrial democracies has freedom from external constraints but lacks opportunities to maximize individual potential through productive love and productive work the result is pervasive feelings of anxiety and insecurity. Most people respond to this anxiety and insecurity by unconsciously adopting personality traits that reduce anxiety and insecurity, but at the expense of their individuality, which Fromm referred to as an escape from...

Hawthorne Studies

A second example involves a case study that was part of a larger group known as the Hawthorne studies, conducted at the Western Electric Company, near Chicago, in the 1920's. One particular study, called the Bank Wiring Observation Room Study, was initiated to examine the informal social interactions that occur within a small group of employees in an industrial plant. A group of fourteen men was moved to a self-contained work room that simulated the plant environment a psychologist was assigned...

Cognitive Activity Cycles During Sleep

As stated previously, the sleeper is not in an unconscious state but is in a different level of consciousness. Cognitive activity is present in all stages of NREM sleep. Hypnagogic imagery, consisting of dreamlike images sometimes indistinguishable from REM dreams, is present in stage one. Subjects are easily awakened during this sleep stage, and regressions to awaking state are quite common. Often, these regressions occur because of myoclonias, which are brief jerking movements of the muscles....

Attributional Style Questionnaire

As research continued, however, Seligman discovered that exposure to uncontrollable negative situations did not always lead to helplessness and depression. Moreover, the results yielded no explanation of the loss of self-esteem frequently seen in depressed persons. To refine their ability to pre- diet helpless attitudes and behavior, Seligman and his colleagues developed a measuring mechanism called the attributional style questionnaire. It involves twelve hypothetical events, six bad and six...

Table of Contents

Logic and Madness Historical Concepts 507 Memory Animal Research 524 Mental Mood Moral Multiple Nervous Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 577 Parkinson's Pavlovian Personal Constructs George A. Kelly 596 Personality Personality Psychophysiological Personality Personology Henry A. Murray Psychoanalysis Psychoanalytic Psychoanalytic Psychology and Personality Sigmund Freud 655 Psychology Psychology Fields of Psychosomatic Disorders Psychotherapy Goals and Techniques 698 Race and Radical Behaviorism...

Psychometric Approach

In the psychometric view, adolescence is a period of cognitive stability. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores show little change during adolescence. Although IQ scores often fluctuate during early childhood, scores generally stabilize about age eight. It is common to find temporary periods of instability in IQ scores after age eight, such as at the onset of puberty or during other stressful times, but dramatic and long-term score changes are rare. According to this perspective, adolescence does...

Relationship to Freudian Theory

Horney's theories were modifications of classical psychoanalytic beliefs. Her theories are best understood when viewed in relation to the Freudian con cepts that were prevalent during her lifetime. According to Sigmund Freud, who founded classical psychoanalysis during the late nineteenth century, biological influences determine human behavior. Of these biological factors, sexual instincts are the strongest motivators of human behavior. Neurosis, or mental disorder, was considered by Freud to...

Medical Models of Abnormality

Medical or biological models of abnormality stem back to Greek physician Hippocrates (c. 470-c. 377 b.c.e.), who proposed that psychological disorders are caused by body-fluid imbalances. Greeks believed that the uterus could move around a woman's body, attaching itself at different places and causing the symptoms of hysteria, a disorder in which a person has physical symptoms without the usual organic causes. The medical model gained support when people realized that some bizarre behaviors...

Sleep

Type of psychology Consciousness Field of study Sleep The study of sleep stages and functions involves descriptions of the electrophysiological, cognitive, -motor, and behavioral components of various sleep stages as well as the potentialfunctions served by each. The sleep-wake cycle is one of several human cir-cadian rhythms that regulate human attention, alertness, and performance. desynchronized electroencephalogram (EEG) nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep rapid eye movement (REM) sleep...

Hunger and the Brain

A strictly physiological analysis claims that an individual's responses to hunger are caused by the brain's regulation of body weight. If the body goes be low its predetermined set point, internal hunger cues are initiated to signal the need for food consumption. External restraints, such as attempts to live up to ideal cultural thinness standards, also affect behavior and may result in restrained eating in order to maintain a body weight below the body's defined set point. The idea of a body...

Types of Speech Disorders

Articulation disorders are the most common types of speech errors in children. Articulation errors may take the form of substitutions, omissions, or distortions of sounds. An example of a substitution would be the substitu tion of the w sound for the r sound, as in wabbit for rabbit. Substitutions are the most common form of articulation errors. An example of an omission would be if the d sound was left out of the word bed, as in be_. Finally, sounds can also be distorted, as in shleep for...

Influences on Affiliation

Beyond easing fear and satisfying the need for information or social comparison, mere affiliation with others is not usually a satisfactory form of interaction. Most people form specific attractions for other individuals, rather than being satisfied with belonging to a group. These attractions usually develop into friendship, love, and other forms of intimacy. Interpersonal attraction, the experience of preferring to interact with specific others, is influenced by several factors. An important...

Theories of Language Development

With an emphasis on language performance (actual language use in different situations) rather than language competence (knowledge of language rules and structure), learning theories contend that children learn their verbal behavior (a term suggested by the behaviorist B. F. Skinner in 1957 to replace the vague word of language) primarily through conditioning and imitation, not maturation. Classical conditioning allows the child to make associations between verbal stimuli, internal responses,...

Alcoholics Anonymous

The best-known support group is Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), formed in Akron, Ohio, in the late 1930's. AA groups now number in the tens of thousands and are found across the globe. AA is an outgrowth of the Oxford Group, a Christian student and athlete group formed at Oxford University in England in 1908. The Oxford Group's ideals of self-examination, acknowledgment of character defects, restitution for harm done, and working with others directly influenced the steps to recovery practiced by...

Understanding Fear of Success

Horney's theories predicted the anxiety women feel about their own ambition and the ways in which women sabotage their competence and success. In the book Women in Therapy (1988), psychotherapist Harriet Goldhor Lerner discusses female work inhibition in the light of Horney's theories. Lerner views work inhibition as an unconscious attempt to preserve harmony within a relationship as well as to allay fears of being unfeminine. Women often fear success because they fear they will pay dearly for...

Animal Models of Human Memory Disorders

Animal research has many practical applications to the study and treatment of human memory dysfunction. Many types of neurological disorder and brain damage can produce memory impairments in humans, and it has been possible to model some of these in animals. The first successful attempt at this was production of an animal model of brain-damaged-induced amnesia. It had been known since the 1950's that damage to the temporal lobes, as a result of disease, traumatic injury, epilepsy, or infection,...

Patterns of Infant Mother Attachment

During the second half of the first year of life (after about eight months of age), infants begin to show very clear attempts at exploration when their mothers are present. In fact, research reported by Mary Ainsworth in the mid-1970's suggests that once an infant is able to crawl, he or she does not al ways remain close to the mother. Instead, the child begins to move away from the mother, more carefully exploring objects and people. From time to time he or she returns to her, as if to check...

Types of Dreams

Just as there are different types of dreamlike experiences, there are different kinds of dreams. While there will be shortcomings in any effort toward classifying dreams, some approximate distinctions can be made in regard to sleep stage, affect (feelings and emotions), reality orientation, and dream origin. When people fall asleep, brain activity changes throughout the night in cycles of approximately ninety minutes. Research with the electroencepha-lograph (which records electrical activity)...

Importance to Psychology of Consciousness

As a naturally induced alteration in consciousness that can be studied objectively with electrophysiological recording equipment, sleep has assumed a prominent role in the psychology of consciousness. Electrophysiological recording techniques that were originally developed in sleep research are now widely used to study other aspects of consciousness, such as hemispheric asymmetries, meditation, sensory isolation, biofeedback, dreams, and drug effects on the brain and behavior. In addition,...

Information Processing in the Elderly

Learning, memory, and attention are all aspects of cognition. Learning is the acquisition of information, skills, and knowledge, measured by improvement in responses. Memory involves retaining and retrieving information for later use. Attention is the mechanism by which individuals process information. Cognition is how sensory input is transformed, stored, and retrieved from memory. Major stages of information-processing models of learning and memory include registration (input), storage...

Psychic Structures and Personalities

In an effort to optimize the development of the self, each person develops his or her own psychological type. Each type (Jung conceived of eight types) consists of a combination of a person's basic attitude and basic function. Jung's two attitudes are extroversion and introversion. These terms follow societal stereotypes, with the extrovert being outgoing and confident and the introvert being hesitant and reflective. These attitudes are combined with four basic functions, or ways of relating to...

Applications of the Principles of Behaviorism

The behaviorism of Watson has resulted in applications in psychology and many other disciplines. The most notable form of application of Watson's behaviorism is the psychological treatment known as systematic desensitiza-tion. This treatment was created by South African psychiatrist Joseph Wolpe (1915-1997). Systematic desensitization was designed to reverse the outcome of the classical conditioning process in which extremely intense negative emotional responses, such as fear or anxiety, are...

Fundamental Postulate and Corollaries

Kelly claimed that constructs operate according to a fundamental postulate. This postulate maintains that each person directs thoughts and cognitions in a way that permits the most accurate prediction of future events. If a woman has a personal construct which states that her boyfriend is a thoughtful person, and he sends her flowers while she is in bed with the flu, her construct would be regarded as an accurate one. If, however, that same boyfriend used her illness as an opportunity to date...

The Effects of Hormones on Behavior

The study of hormones and their effects upon individual and group behaviors is of immense interest to psychologists. Hormones represent the biochemical control signals for much of animal and human behaviors. Understanding precisely how hormones affect individuals, both psychologically and physiologically, could be of great value in comprehending many different human behaviors, in treating abnormal behaviors, and in helping individuals to cope psychologically with disease and stress. The...

Prevalence

Prevalence rates for learning disorders vary, depending on the definitions and methods of determining the achievement-intelligence discrepancy. According to the American Psychiatric Association, estimates range from 2 percent to 10 percent for the general population, and 5 percent for public school students in the United States. The prevalence rate for each specific learning disorder is more difficult to establish because many studies simply report the total number of learning disorders without...

General Adaptation Syndrome

The physiological response is more predictable. Beginning in the 1930's, Selye began studying the human response to stressors. Eventually he identified what he termed the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) to describe the typical pattern of physical responses. Selye divided the GAS into three stages alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. The first stage begins when an individual becomes frightened, anxious, or even merely concerned. The body immediately undergoes numerous physical changes to cope...

Applied Research in Cognitive Psychology

For many psychologists, the desire to know about knowing is sufficient reason to study human cognition however, there are more tangible benefits. Examples of these widespread practical applications may be found in the fields of artificial intelligence, law, and in the everyday world of decision making. Artificial intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science that strives to create a computer capable of reasoning, processing language, and, in short, mimicking human intelligence. While this...

Ulcers and Learned Helplessness

The concept of stress has been used to help explain the etiology of certain diseases. Diseases that are thought to be caused in part by exposure to stress or poor ability to cope with stress are called psychophysiological or psychosomatic disorders. Among the diseases that seem to have strong psychological components are ulcers and coronary heart disease. The role of stress in ulcers was highlighted in a study by Joseph V. Brady known as the executive monkey study. In this study, pairs of...

The Hindbrain

Brain Reticular Formation

As the spinal cord enters the skull, it enlarges into the bottommost structure of the brain, the medulla (or medulla oblongata). The medulla controls many of the most basic physiological functions for survival, particularly breathing and the beating of the heart. Reflexes such as vomiting, coughing, sneezing, and salivating are also controlled by the medulla. The medulla is sensitive to opiate and amphetamine drugs, and overdoses of these drugs can impair its normal functioning. Severe...

Responses to Freudian Theory

The theory of psychosocial development of Erik Erikson (1902-1994) occupies a position between orthodox psychoanalysis and neoanalytic schools of thought. His theory builds upon the basic concepts and tenets of Freudian psychology by illustrating the influential role of social and cultural forces in personality development. Erikson's observations of infants and investigations of the parent-child relationship in various societies contributed to his development of the model of the eight stages of...

Aggression and Body Chemistry

In most species, including humans, males are more aggressive than females. This is thought to be because of the testosterone levels present in varying degrees in males. The higher the testosterone level, the more aggressive the male. Aggressive behavior that threatens the welfare of the species is often controlled in humans by medication that reduces the testosterone levels and pacifies aggressive men. It is notable that young men tend to be considerably more aggressive than older males,...

The Forebrain

Right above the midbrain, in the center of the brain, lies the thalamus, which is the center of sensory processing. All incoming sensory information, except for the sense of smell, goes to the thalamus first before it is sent on to the cerebral cortex and other areas of the brain. Anterior to and slightly below the thalamus is the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic activity is involved in numerous motivated behaviors such as eating, drinking, sexual activity, temperature regulation, and aggression. Its...

Three Aspects of the Proprium

Allport referred to the unifying core of personality, or those aspects of the self that a person considers central to self-identity, as the proprium. During the first three to four years of life, three aspects of the proprium emerge. The sense of a bodily self involves awareness of body sensations. Self-identity represents the child's knowledge of an inner sameness or continuity over time, and self-esteem reflects personal efforts to maintain pride and avoid embarrassment. Self-extension...

Hypnosis and Meditation

Two popular nonchemical techniques for altering consciousness are hypnosis and meditation. Hypnosis was first discovered in the eighteenth century by Franz Mesmer, and its use has been marked by controversy ever since. An altered state is induced in hypnosis by the suggestive instructions of the hypnotist, usually involving progressive relaxation. The hypnotized subject often appears to be asleep but remains alert inside, exhibiting varying degrees of responsiveness to the suggestions of the...

Personality and Essence

Theorists agree that people have an internal essence that determines who they are and that guides their behavior, but the nature of that essence differs from theory to theory. Psychoanalytic theory such as Sigmund Freud's see the essence of personality as arising from conflict among internal psychic processes. For Freud, the conflict is viewed as occurring among the urges for instinctual gratification (called the id), the urges for perfection (the superego), and the demands of reality (the...

Specifiers for Mood Disorders

Specifiers allow for a more specific diagnosis, which assists in treatment and prognosis. A postpartum onset specifier can be applied to a diagnosis of major depressive disorder or bipolar I or II disorder if the onset is within four weeks after childbirth. Symptoms include fluctuations in mood and intense (sometimes delusional) preoccupation with infant well-being. Severe ruminations or delusional thoughts about the infant are correlated with increased risk of harm to the infant. The mother...

Selfesteem

Self-esteem is a term with which almost everyone is familiar, yet it is not necessarily easily understood. Psychologist William James gave the first clear definition in 1892 when he said that self-esteem equals success divided by pretensions. In other words, feelings of self-worth come from the successes an individual achieves tempered by what the person had expected to achieve. If the person expected to do extremely well on an exam (his or her pretensions are quite high) and scores an A, then...

Talent

Modern studies of giftedness have their origin in the work of Lewis Terman at Stanford University, who in the 1920's used intelligence test scores to identify intellectually gifted children. His minimal standard for giftedness was an intelligence quotient (IQ) of 140 on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test, a number at or above which only 1 percent of children are expected to score. (The average IQ score is 100.) Terman and his associates identified more than fifteen hundred children in...

Attraction Theories

Type of psychology Social psychology Field of study Interpersonal relations Theories of interpersonal attraction attempt to specify the conditions that lead people to like, and in some cases love, each other. Attraction is a two-way process, involving not only the person who is attracted but also the attractor. physical attractiveness stereotype Relationships are central to human social existence. Personal accounts by people who have been forced to endure long periods of isolation serve as...

The Cultural Context of Hunger

One approach to increasing understanding of hunger and its psychological components is to examine hunger in its cultural context. In American culture, the experience of hunger is inextricably tied to weight, eating, body image, self-concept, social definitions of fatness and thinness, and other factors which take the issue of hunger far beyond the physiological facts. Historian Hillel Schwartz has traced the American cultural preoccupation with hunger, eating, and diet by examining the cultural...

Defense and Coping Strategies

In order to cope with basic anxiety, individuals use additional defensive strategies or neurotic trends to cope with the world. These involve three primary patterns of behavior moving away from others, moving toward others, and moving against others. In addition, neurotic individuals develop an idealized self, an unrealistic, flattering distortion of the self-image that encourages people to set unattainable standards, shrink from reality, and compulsively search for glory (compulsive and...

Reasons for Using Animal Subjects

Psychologists study animals for a variety of reasons. Sometimes they study the behavior of a particular animal in order to solve a specific problem. They may study dogs, for example, to learn how best to train them as watchdogs, chickens to learn how to prevent them from fighting one another in henhouses, and wildlife to learn how to regulate populations in parks, refuges, or urban areas. These are all examples of what is called applied research. Most psychologists, though, are more interested...

Cognitive Psychology

The study of thought, and particularly its measurement, is a relatively recent development. For centuries, the thinking processes of humans were believed to be somewhat mystical and certainly not available for scientific inquiry. Most philosophers were concerned more with the mind and its relationship to the body or the world than with how people think. The study of thought, although it was generally considered by the ancient Greek philosophers, did not merit serious attention until the...