M

Other measures such as insect growth regulat.-s, biological competitors, the use of larvh ofr.-s fish. and environmental management have been used with variable success. Integrated control using a combination of the above methods is required. Reduction of man-vector contact can be achieved by house-screening and the use of impregnated nets and curtains. Biocides and polystyrene beads for larval control have been also effective in certain areas. The task of eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF)...

Nutritional Disorders

Multinutrient undernutrition Specific micronutrient deficiencies Obesity and related conditions Causes of undernutrition Control of nutrition disorders References and further reading learning Malnutrition is an important public health problem that is caused by a deficient or excess intake of nutrients in relation to requirements. Undernutrition (nutrient deficiency) is the prevalent type of malnutrition in tropical developing countries. At most risk are the poor and disadvantaged, particularly...

Opisthorchiasis

Organism Opisthorchis viverrini, 0. felineus In the tropics Opisthorchis felineus'is prevalent in the Philippines, India, Japan and Vietnam, while O. viverrini is endemic in North mi North East Thailand and Laos. The largest number of human infections occur during the latter portioi. of the rainy season and the first part of the dry season (i.e. from September to February). Humans, domestic, wild and fur-bearing animals are the reservoir of infection. The chief reservoir of O. felineus is the...

Contingent valuation CV

One methodology that has developed as an alternative to the COI approach is CV. CV allows the user of the service (and in some cases the community as a whole) to indicate for themselves how they value a particular service by asking people's willingness to pay (WTP) to obtain that service (or, less commonly, their willingness to accept (WTA) the lack of the health service). The approach resolves some of the problems associated with the COI approach, although it does not resolve all of them. CV...

Tetanus

Vaccine may not be indicated in areas which are consistently free of animal rabies. Biting animal its species and state of health Carnivores are particularly important in the spread of rabies. In the case of a dog bite, the animal should be captured alive if possible, and kept under observation for 10 days. If the animal has been killed or if it dies during the period of observation, steps should be taken to find out if it was rabid the animal should be decapitated and the head sent to the...

Young children

Multinutrient undernutrition is found when a foetus is deprived of nutrients due to maternal undernutrition, or other maternal conditions such as malaria or smoking a young child's diet is inadequate in quantity or quality and or infection reduces nutrient intake and absorption, or increases needs (see Causes of undernutrition). Between conception and around the age of 3 years there is rapid growth of the body including the brain, and rapid cognitive development. Multi-nutrient undernutrition...

Clinical significance of

Human genetics is one of the elements that can be used in the planning of co-ordinated attacks on disease, since it can sometimes differentiate those groups or individuals who are susceptible from those who are not. Genetic factors often determine group susceptibility or resistance to disease, for example the racial immunity to vivax malaria of West African Negroes now shown to be related to the Duffy antigen. The recent advances in genetics have boosted interest in molecular epidemiology that...

Concepts In Public Health And Preventive Medicine

The dimensions of public health The tropical environment Modern public health The ecological approach to public health Key public health functions References and further reading When this textbook was first published in 1973, it was designed to fill a gap in the medical literature. It directed attention to the special problems of disease prevention in the tropics and it emphasized major health problems peculiar to the tropics with particular reference to parasitic infections and other...

The Dimensions Of Public Health

It would be useful to explore the concepts contained in the four terms that are commonly used to describe different aspects of public health (Fig. 1.1) Prevention is better than cure is one of the prime messages of public health. It differentiates public health from the clinical disciplines that are primarily involved with the care of the sick, whilst public health emphasizes the avoidance of illness. Prevention was initially construed narrowly in terms of protective measures like vaccination...

Mycobacterium ulcerans infection Buruli ulcer

Mycobacterium ulcerans causes chronic necrotizing ulcers of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. The predominance of lesions occur in the extremities. The usual incubation period is about 4-10 weeks. M. ulcerans grows preferentially at a temperature of 32-33 C. It belongs to the group of slow-growing mycobacteria requiring 4-18 weeks to grow from initial isolation. The infection has been recognized ill at least 31 countries in Africa, Australasia a id in other regions. The prevalence of Buruli...

Diphyllobothriasis

Occurrence Commoner in temperate zones Organism Diphyllobothrium latum Reservoir Humans, fish-eating mammals Transmission Eating raw fish Control Thorough cooking Control of fishing and export of raw fish Infection by the fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum is characterized by a megaloblastic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency. If segments are passed in the faeces or vomitus, diagnosis can be made by seeing the typical rosette-shaped uterus when the segment is crushed between two glass...

Epidemiological patterns of

Developing countries can be classified into three broad groups on the basis of their health profiles. In these countries, parasitic and infectious diseases, acute respiratory-tract diseases and malnutrition occur frequently as major causes of morbidity and mortality child and maternal mortality rates are high fertility rate is high and expectation of life at birth is low. These countries are undergoing rapid demographic and epidemiological change infant, child and maternal mortality rates are...

Iron deficiency and anaemia

Inadequate dietary iron results in decreased body iron stores, haemoglobin synthesis and finally Box 9.2 feeding guideline* far adults. Eat plenty of, and a variety of the following foods staple foods (cereals, starchy roots and fruits), legumes, oilseeds, fruits and vegetables (particularly deep coloured ones), and flavouring foods (e.g. garlic, onions, herbs). Eat fish as often as possible. Eat iron-providing foods, such as meat and offal, when possible (see 'Specific micronutrient...

African tick typhus

African tick typhus (also known as Boutonneuse or Marseilles fever) is a mild disease in man and deaths are almost unknown. A primary eschar is found at the site of the tick bite. Inapparent infections do not occur, although mild abortive attacks without a rash are not uncommon. This is found in Africa south of the Sahara West Africa, East Africa (Kenya), South Africa, the Sudan, Somalia and Ethiopia. The disease is contracted by man from ticks in the bush, where the reservoirs are wild...

Environmental Health

Water supply Excreta disposal Waste management Vector control Hygiene education Food safety and hygiene Protection from radiation Air pollution Environmental health comprises of those aspects of human health, including quality of life, that are determined by physical, chemical, biological, social and psychosocial factors in the environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of accessing, correcting, controlling and preventing those factors in the environment that can potentially affect...

Transmission

The newborn baby is infected from its mother's genital tract during delivery, which may lead to pneumonia or otitis media in addition to inclusion conjunctivitis. The infection may also be transmitted mechanically from eye to eye, but adults often acquire the infection in the swimming ppsf Topical treatment with tetracycline ointment is usually effective but sulphonamides may also o< administered by the oral route. Routine eye oilet of newborn babies is of no apparent value. Systemic...

The leishmaniases

It is convenient (though not strictly justifiable) to subdivide the leishmaniases into clinical types according to the site affected (see Table 7.5). There are two phases in the life cycle of leishmania each associated with a different form of the protozoa An aflagellate amastigote (leishmanial) - rounded form occurs in man and in animal reservoir hosts. A flagellate promastigote (leptomonad) - form is found in the vector sandfly and in culture media. The former is oval (2 jum X 3 (xm) and...

New statistical approaches in HEALTH

Policy-makers are using new statistical tools to provide an objective basis for their decisions Quite understandably, there are relatively gootl-quality data from the developed countries and the more advanced developing countries, out in the least developed countries data are scanty, am some of the estimates of the global burden of disease were derived from extrapolations. The results shoved that in developing countries communic ible diseases and perinatal problems accounted for the largest...

Nematode roundworm

Table 4.2 Classification of important helminthic diseases transmitted through the gastro-intestinal tract Table 4.2 Classification of important helminthic diseases transmitted through the gastro-intestinal tract This disease, due to the large intestinal roundworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, is often symptomless and infection is discovered incidentally occasionally it causes intestinal obstruction in children. The adult worms of A. lumbricoides live in the small intestine. Their colour is...

Objectives

The three major objectives of the child health services are to Promote the health of children to ensure that they achieve optimal growth and development both physical and mental. Figure 12.3 Under five mortality rates changes from 1960 to 1996. Source WHO (1998). Figure 12.3 Under five mortality rates changes from 1960 to 1996. Source WHO (1998). Protect children from major hazards through specific measures (immunization, chemoprophylaxis, dietary supplements) and through improvement in the...

The filariases

Filariases

Under this generic title are grouped a variety of diseases which bear little relation to each other pathologically, although they are produced by nematode worms all belonging to the superfamily Filariodea. Man is the definitive host of several filarial nematodes. Their embryos (microfilariae) are taken up by insect vectors when feeding on man. They pass through a developmental cycle lasting about 2 weeks, at the end of which infective larvae are present in the proboscis. When the insect next...

Dracunculiasis guinea worm

Mode Transmission Dracunculiasis

The guinea worm Dracunculus medinensis has been known since ancient times. It results in the formation of skin ulcers, often in the ankles or legs, with extrusion of embryos on contact with water. The ulcers frequently become infected and are a cause of disability and school absenteeism. The sexually mature female is up to 1 m long and 2 mm in diameter the uterus, which occupies most of the body, contains millions of embryos. The male is small and its fate after copulation is not known....

Trichuriasis

This infection is due to the whipworm Trichuris trichiura and it is often symptomless. However, heavy infections of over 1000 worms may cause bloody diarrhoea with anaemia and prolapse of the rectum. Trichuriasis occurs throughout the world but is more prevalent in the warm humid tropics. Humans are the reservoir of infection. Soil pollution is the determining factor in the prevalence and intensity of infection in a community, and clay soils are more favourable than sandy soils. Transmission...

Hepatitis B HBV

Hepatitis B is not transmitted by the faeco-oral route Hit is a blood-borne agent, transmitted by inoculatior. It is only included here for convenience. Hepatitis B virus causes long-incubation hepatitis. It also gives rise to one of the 10 most common cancers, heptocellular carcinoma. There is evidence that HBV is the aetiological agent in up to 80 of cases. The carrier state (defined as the presence of HbsAg for more than 6 months - see below) rises from 0.1 in parts of Europe to 15 in...

Fungal infections

A wide variety of fungi infect skin, hair and nails, without deeper penetration of the host tissues. The infective agents include species of Epidermophyton, Trichophyton, Microsporon and Mallassezia furfur (causative agent of tinea versicolor). The various clinical manifestations include favus, ringworm of the scalp, body, feet (athlete's foot) and nails some produce dyspigmentation, for example tinea versicolor. The lesions are mostly disfiguring but apart from the aesthetic aspect some are...

Bacterial infections

Chlamydia trachomatis (serotypes L1 3) Transmission Genital sexual contact, indirect Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is one of a range of diseases caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (see p. 122). Unlike trachoma arid inclusion c Bc junctivitis (see p. 122) the serotypes of I'd. 1.2 amL.1.3 cause systemic disease rather than being fcsmctcd to the mucous membrane surface Stained smears of pus and other 'i& obglca material may show virus particles. The organism can b- identified on culture in the...

Vitamin A deficiency disorders

Vitamin Related Communication

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) occurs when there is insufficient vitamin A in body stores or the diet to cover needs. Factors affecting this balance are the quantity and bioavailability of vitamin A in the diet (Box 9.4) and the level of requirement. Requirements are relatively high for young children and pregnant and lactating women, and increase during infections such as measles. VAD is found most frequently in areas where vitamin A-rich foods, particularly retinol-rich foods, are unavailable...

Iodine deficiency disorders IDD

Iodine is needed to make thyroid hormones so prolonged iodine deficiency impairs thyroid function resulting in lower metabolic rate, lethargy, growth retardation and brain damage. Goitre occurs when the thyroid gland enlarges in an effort to capture more iodine from the blood. Diets in most places are low in iodine unless fortified foods or foods from the sea (which is rich in iodine) are commonly eaten. The iodine level of food is related to the level in the soil on which it is produced. So...

Epidemic louseborne typhus

This acute disease is caused by R. prowazekii and is transmitted by the louse Pediculus humanus. The incubation period is about 10 days. Epidemic typhus has a worldwide distribution but the disease is commoner in cold climates than in Table 7.3 The main rickettsial diseases of man Table 7.3 The main rickettsial diseases of man Also known as Boutonneuse or Marseilles fever. Q fever and trench fever are conventionally considered with the rickettsiae Also known as Boutonneuse or Marseilles fever....

Flaviviruses group B

The diseases most important to man rcsi. i from infections with arboviruses of this group, most of which have mosquitoes as their vectors, with the exception of a subgroup which are tick-borne. Antigenic cross-reactivity is marked in the group B viruses, so that in areas where there is a high endemicity, for example tropical Africa, serological diagnosis may be difficult, and the most rapid and definitive diagnostic method of active infection is by virus isolation. Many infections are...