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1 Men age > 35, women age > 45. 2 Persons with HTN and hypercholesterolemia only. 3 Men who have smoked, age 65-75 only. 7 Women age > 65 or older, postmenopausal, or at increased risk for osteoporotic fractures. 1 Men age > 35, women age > 45. 2 Persons with HTN and hypercholesterolemia only. 3 Men who have smoked, age 65-75 only. 7 Women age > 65 or older, postmenopausal, or at increased risk for osteoporotic fractures. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2006...

General Considerations Regarding Screening Tests

Approaches to prevention are broadly categorized into levels that reflect the natural history of a disease (Fletcher & Fletcher, 2005 Gorroll & Mulley, 2005). Primary prevention prevents disease before occurrence, for example immunizations and focused health education. Secondary prevention detects disease early and when early treatment impacts progression and transmission. Screening for conditions like hypertension and sexually transmitted diseases are examples of secondary prevention....

Burden of Illness

As a result of poverty and drug abuse, prisoners have a uniquely high prevalence of communicable disease, including HIV AIDS, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, and viral hepatitis B and C (NCCHC, 2002) owing in part to their drug abuse. As a result of their poverty, inmates have high rates of mental illness and chronic diseases, such as asthma, diabetes, and hypertension. Drug addiction, poor access to health care, poverty, substandard nutrition, poor housing conditions and...

Public Safety and Public Health Outcomes

There are good reasons, then, to believe that high rates of incarceration, concentrated in impoverished residential areas, will have negative impact on the health and safety of those areas. Studies of this question are mixed, but tend to bear this out. Health Outcomes. Several studies have investigated the relationship between incarceration and health. The most direct impact has been documented for STDs. Johnson and Raphael (2005) have shown that the disparity in HIV rates between black and...

Foreword

America's health care system is failing those who are incarcerated. As Assistant Secretary for Health and the United States Surgeon General from 1998 to 2002, I had the opportunity to lead in the development of Healthy People 2010, a comprehensive, nationwide health promotion and disease prevention agenda to improve the health of all people in the United States during the first decade of the 21st century. Healthy People 2010's overarching goals are to increase the quality and years of healthy...

References

The neglected epidemic and the Surgeon General's report. A call to action for better oral health. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 843-845. Allukian, M., & Horowitz, A. M. (2006). Oral health. In B. S. Levy & V. W. Sidel (Eds.), Social injustice and public health (pp. 357-377). New York Oxford University Press. Badner, V., & Margolin, R. (1994). Oral health status among women inmates at Rikers Island Correctional Facility. Journal of Correctional Health Care,...

Aging and Reentry Issues

As the prison population ages, so does the parole population. Between 1990 and 1999, the percentage of new parolees aged 55 and older increased from 1.5 to 2.1 of the total U.S. parolee population and the number of state prisoners aged 55 or older leaving custody on parole nearly doubled from approximately 5000 in 1990 to approximately 9000 in 1999 (http www.ojp.usdoj.gov bjs pub pdf reentry.pdf, 2003). Despite these changing demographics, little research has been done on the care and...

Recommendations for the Development of Written Discharge Health Information

Even when the importance of developing health materials as part of a comprehensive discharge plan is acknowledged, correctional personnel must recognize that the majority of inmates have low literacy skills and that written materials must be designed with this in mind. To quote Smith and Smith (1994), who analyzed medical education publications, information written above patients' reading level is useless and a waste of time and money (p.1). The criteria for developing easy-to-read,...

Attitudinal Bias

Overall, the range of attitudes about disordered behavior, criminality, and mental disorders held by the general public vary across a continuum anchored at one end by conservative and moralistic views and at the other end by more liberal views. In a study of probation officers and law and criminology students, Carroll, Perkowitz, Lurigio, and Weaver (1987) described the conservative view as a punitive stance toward crime, belief in individual causality for crime, high scores on...

Presenting the Evidence

Dental care is listed as an essential health service by the National Commission on Correctional Health Care (Treadwell & Formicola, 2005). Nonetheless, the oral health status of prisoners is overridingly poor. As with other individuals of low social standing in the U.S. population, adults who are incarcerated in both federal and state prison systems are more likely to have extensive caries and periodontal disease, be missing teeth at every age, and endure a higher percentage of unmet dental...

Targeted STI Screening in Correctional Settings

In order to have the largest impact on the community, targeted STI screening should occur at intake into jails and youth detention because a substantial proportion of detainees are released back to the community within 48 hours (Skolnick, 1998). Screening for STIs in prisons will have much less public health benefit, because generally persons sentenced to prison will be removed from the community for at least 1 year. Thus, they will play only a minor role in ongoing community transmission. In...

Reducing Inmate Suicides Through the Mortality Review Process

Suicide continues to be a leading cause of death in jails across the country, where well over 400 inmates take their lives each year (Hayes, 1989). The rate of suicide in county jails is estimated to be approximately four times greater than that of the general population (Mumola, 2005). Overall, most jail suicide victims were young white males who were arrested for nonviolent offenses and intoxicated on arrest. Many were placed in isolation and dead within 24 hours of incarceration (Hayes, 1989...

Reproductive Health Needs of Incarcerated Juveniles

Adolescents in correctional facilities report becoming sexually active at earlier ages and partaking in risky sexual behaviors more frequently than their nonincarcerated peers (Strack & Alexander, 2000). In one study of juvenile offenders aged 14-18, 87 of the sample reported being sexually active. Over one-third reported having sex before they were 12 years old and 57 before they were 13 years old. The median age for first sex was 12 for males and 13 for females. Of those who reported...

HIV and Viral Hepatitis in Corrections A Public Health Opportunity

Inmates are disproportionately impacted by communicable diseases such as HIV and viral hepatitis (Hammett et al., 2002, BOJ Statistics, 2002). Once incarcerated, the conditions that exist in most of the world's jails and prisons create an ideal environment for the transmission of contagious diseases. Overcrowded communal living environments, delays in medical treatment, insufficient access to clean laundry, soap, and water, and prohibitions against the use of harm reduction measures such as...

Improving Public Health Through Correctional Health Care

With our high rates of incarceration and high burden of illness, there are social policy conundrums that go beyond the authority of correctional administrators and correctional health practitioners. Public policy makers will be dealing with increasing costs for medical care, not just because of health care inflation, but because the inmate population is aging. What is the effect of our current policies on communities Inmates are returning to their home communities without treatment, education,...

Epidemiology of Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis and Corrections Overlapping Populations

The United States has the highest rates of STIs among developed countries (Eng & Butler, 1997). Chlamydia and gonorrhea are the two most commonly reported infections with 976,445 and 339,593 cases reported in 2005 (CDC, 2006a). Chlamydia and gonorrhea are most common in persons aged 25 and younger, with peak rates among females aged 15-19 and males aged 20-24 (CDC, 2006a). Rates also are substantially elevated in some racial ethnic minority populations. Compared with whites, chlamydia rates...

Models of Care

All prison services would state that they provided some level of health care for their prisoners. The actual service delivery will depend on the legislative framework governing the correctional service, but rarely also the laws regulating the health service. Western European countries, additionally, apply a human rights framework to their prisons, and by extension, to the health services provided to prisoners. Five models of prisoner health care are identifiable 1. The prison health authority...

Charlotte K Kent and Gail A Bolan

Sexually transmitted infections STI include a broad category of bacterial, viral, protozoan, and fungal infections and ectoparasitic infestations. For three of these bacterial infections, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis, there is substantive evidence that screening and treatment in correctional settings could play a critical role in their control. We will describe the epidemiology of these infections, the appropriate populations to target for screening, methods to increase treatment of...