Radiological Findings

Affected individuals have a 15% incidence of developing squamous carcinoma at an early age (Hoeffel et al. 1992). Therefore, fluoroscopy must be prudently limited in these children and repeated fluoroscopy and fluoroscopically guided esophageal dilatation are discouraged

Children with epidermolysis bullosa must be treated very carefully to prevent trauma to their extremely fragile skin and mucosa. They should lie

Fig. 2.31. Epidermolysis bullosa. Barium swallow reveals a proximal annular stricture and a long segment of diffuse irregularity of the esophagus

on soft padding on the fluoroscopic table and should not be restrained for radiographic procedures. Affected children should drink the barium spontaneously, and nasogastric tubes must be avoided (FoRDHAm 2005). Barium esophagram will demonstrate strictures, approximately half which are in the proximal third of the esophagus near the cricopha-ryngeus muscle, 25% in the distal one-third, and the remainder in multiple sites (Fig. 2.31) (Kern et al. 1989). The strictures may be several centimeters in length, and are likely exacerbated by gastroesopha-geal reflux. Annular strictures are usually less than 3 cm in length.

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Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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