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Benign Neoplasms 4.1.6.1.1

Infantile Hemangioendothelioma

The infantile hemangioma accounts for the majority of benign hepatic neoplasms of the liver in infants. Girls are affected five times more frequently than boys. The typical age of presentation is in the first year of life, with approximately 85% of cases having presented by 6 months of age (Suchy 2003) (Fig. 4.6a).

Clinical symptoms may vary but abdominal pain and nausea are common. Other symptoms such as hemorrhage, consumptive coagulopathy, thrombo-cytopenia (Kasabach-Merrit syndrome), and cardiac failure may be seen (Suchy 2003).

On histological examination, hemangiomas of the liver will present with multiple vascular channels lined by a single layer of endothelial cells. Based on the endothelial layer and proliferation, heman-giomas have been subclassified into type I and II. In type I, multiple vascular spaces with immature endothelial cells will be seen, while in type II the vascular spaces will be larger and the endothelial component will be predominant. Sometimes hemorrhage, fibrous tissue, and calcifications may be found inside the lesion.

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