Best Home Remedy to Cure Acne
An eclectic group of skin disease outpatients reported that their lives had been affected by skin disease in many ways (Jowett & Ryan, 1985). They reported difficulties in their relationships and poorer employment opportunities due to their skin disease, not to mention the damage that they felt their skin disease had afflicted on their self-esteem. Furthermore, functional and interpersonal problems in the workplace, increased anxiety and lack of confidence were also cited. Many patients feel that their sexual relationships and ability to find a partner have also suffered due to their skin condition (Porter et al., 1990). Furthermore, a British survey of acne patients showed unemployment levels in acne participants to be significantly higher than control participants (Cunliffe, 1986).
Social phobia (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) is characterised by a marked or persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or to the possible scrutiny of others (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). The individual fears that he or she will act in a way or show anxiety symptoms that will be humiliating or embarrassing. For example, some patients with hyperhydrosis and rosacea often perspire or blush more prominently in embarrassing situations and may develop a social phobia as a result. Exposure to the feared social situation almost always provokes anxiety, which may take the form of a situationally bound panic attack, which in turn also results in an exaggerated autonomic reactivity of the skin. In social phobia the individual recognises that the fear is excessive or unreasonable however, intense anxiety results if the feared situation is not avoided. The anxious anticipation or distress of the feared...
PTSD secondary to childhood neglect and abuse, especially sexual abuse, is often the underlying psychiatric pathology in dermatological patients who self-induce their lesions. PTSD is often complicated by substance abuse disorders and this often becomes the main focus in treatment. When dissociative symptoms are a prominent feature of the PTSD, the patient may not have recollection of the fact that they self-induced their lesions (Shelley, 1981 Gupta et al., 2000) and may be misdiagnosed as malingerers or attentions seekers and the central role of psychological trauma is often overlooked. PTSD, dissociation and self-injury (Gupta et al., 2000) can be the underlying psychiatric disturbance in some cases of trichotil-lomania and dermatitis artefacta or may complicate the course of other dermato-logical conditions such as acne excoriee or the exacerbation of psoriatic lesions secondary to the Koebner phenomenon.
The personality disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) are defined as an enduring pattern of inner experience and behaviour that is pervasive across a wide range of personal and social situations and deviate markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture. The personality disorders that are most frequently encountered in dermatology include Borderline, Narcissistic and Histrionic personality disorders which all fall in the 'Cluster B' (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) category in the DSM-IV and Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (which is categorised in 'Cluster C'). Borderline personality disorder is associated with a pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, affects and self-image, and impulsive behaviours. Such patients are often 'difficult' as their instability in interpersonal relationships and self-image are also manifested in their relationship with their dermatologists and other health care providers. Such patients often try to...
One approach is to reduce the visibility of a stigmatising mark. There is good evidence that cosmetic surgery (Sarwer et al., 1998) and cosmetic prostheses can help people feel better about themselves and their appearance. With respect to skin conditions, skin camouflage creams can be used to disguise skin blemishes such as scars and vitiligo. Kent (2002) found that clients who consulted the British Red Cross Skin Camouflage Service felt more confident in and exhibited less avoidance of social situations after their appointment than before. Although there was no measure of enacted or felt stigma in that study, qualitative comments indicated that clients were less preoccupied by how others would react to them. Laser treatment can also be helpful for those with port wine stains (Troilius et al., 1998), as is medical treatment for a variety of skin conditions including acne and eczema (Kurwa & Finlay, 1995 Kellett & Gawkrodger, 1999).
Further, medications developed for use with dermatological treatment can also have dangerous side effects, which can include triggering psychiatric symptoms, and for this reason they often require careful monitoring. For example, isotretinoin used in the treatment of acne has been linked to depression (Kellett & Gawkrodger, 1999 Ng & Schweitzer, 2003) and Dapsone, another dermatological medication, has been linked to manic-depression (Gawkrodger, 1989 Zhu & Stiller, 2001).
The visibility of the child's condition is also thought to have an impact on the child's adjustment to their condition. Many skin conditions are immediately apparent to other people and children, and their families have to manage the reaction of other people to the child's condition on a daily basis. Papadopoulos et al. (2000) compared the impact of acne which was mainly on a young person's body with acne mostly on the face, and showed that the visible, facial acne sufferers had lower self-esteem and that their body image was more affected than if it was on their body.
The relationship of QoL of patients to acne severity, anxiety and depression were examined in a study in Turkey (Yazici et al., 2004). This study of 61 patients demonstrated an increased risk of depression in patients compared to controls. The greater the impairment of QoL due to acne, the greater the level of anxiety and depression. The relationship of QoL impairment to psychological symptoms was also demonstrated in a study from Denmark of 333 dermatology outpatients, 172 inpatients and 293 matched controls (Zachariae et al., 2004). High impairment of QoL as measured using the DLQI was the main predictor of psychological symptoms.
There has been a considerable increase, in the last two decades, in cosmetic surgery and dieting as well as the profile of the fashion and cosmetic industry. The 'appearance industry' is a multi-million pound business aimed at selling beauty products to the widest possible market and this has served to increase the pressure that many people feel to conform to unreachable standards in physical aesthetics. Particularly in the Western world, we see adverts that project the agenda that 'attractive people are popular, happy, successful, interesting and are often loved and worshipped' (Papadopoulos & Walker, 2003). This is particularly acute when looking at adverts for facial washes and scrubs for acne that intentionally contrast the relative social successes of individuals with and without a given skin disease. Of course, cosmetic and physical perfection are rarely associated with those experiencing cutaneous conditions and so people with dermatological illnesses are often left feeling...
Clark, S.M., Goulden, V., Finlay, A.Y., & Cunliffe, W.J. (1997). The psychological and social impact of acne a comparison study using 3 acne disability questionnaires. British Journal of Dermatology Supplement, 137, 41-42. Kellett, S.C., & Gawkroger, D.J. (1999). The psychological and emotional impact of acne and the effect of treatment with isotretinoin. British Journal of Dermatology, 140,273-282. Kellett, S., & Gilbert, P. (2001). Acne a biopsychosocial and evolutionary perspective with a focus on shame. British Journal of Health Psychology, 6, 1-24. Ng, C.H., & Schweitzer, I. (2003). The association between depression and isotretinoin use in acne. Australian and New Zealand Journal Of Psychiatry, 37, 78-84.
Every infertility evaluation should begin with a complete physical exam. When examining the female partner, it is important to document height and weight, as well as body mass index (BMI weight in kilograms height in meters squared). There is a clear association between weight and infertility as well as a correlation between the woman's weight and the amount of gonadotropins needed to stimulate the ovaries. It is important to check for thyroid enlargement, nodules, or tenderness, as well as identifying excessive acne or facial hair, which may be associated with increased androgen levels. Evidence of acanthosis nigricans often indicates
Although the tendency of others to react negatively towards people with visible skin conditions is well established, relatively little theoretical or experimental consideration has been given to exploring the causes of this phenomenon. Hypotheses to account for these reactions have revolved around evolutionary theory (Kellett & Gilbert, 2001 Thompson & Kent, 2001), fear and uncertainty (Partridge, 1996) and primitive beliefs often linked to concepts of'fate'or a 'just world' (Shaw, 1981). Certainly, a whole collection of negative, culturally bound, beliefs relating to skin conditions exist, often related to the occurrence and maintenance of the condition as relating to personality flaws in the sufferer. For example, Alderman (1989) has described a collection of'acne myths' relating to such ideas as acne being caused by poor diet and hygiene. Beuf (1990) has reported a belief amongst the Black American population, that the depigmenting condition vitiligo occurs as a punishment for...
The characteristic features of skin change from the time of birth to old age. In infants and children it is velvety, dry, soft, and largely free of wrinkles and blemishes. The sebaceous glands in children up to the age of two years function minimally and hence they sweat poorly and irregularly. Adolescence causes sweating and sebaceous secretions to increase dramatically and the hair becomes longer, thicker, and more pigmented, particularly in the scalp, axillae, pubic eminence, and the face in males. General skin pigmentation increases and acne lesions often develop. As the skin ages, it loses elasticity and exposure to the environment, particularly sun and wind, cause the skin to become dry and wrinkled.
Thalidomide (as a sedative) can be contrasted to isotretinoin (Accutane). Isotretinoin also can cause severe, sometimes fatal, fetal malformations and is absolutely contraindicated in pregnancy or in women who may become pregnant within a month of using it. However, its value in treating severe cystic acne and other severe skin diseases gives it a favorable balance of risks and benefits, and it is marketed in the United States.
OCD (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) is characterised by recurrent obsessions or compulsions severe enough to be time consuming or cause marked distress or significant impairment. OCD is an anxiety disorder, and some of the compulsive behaviours of OCD may in fact further exacerbate skin disorders that are associated with or exacerbated by anxiety such as atopic dermatitis. Some of the compulsions involve repetitive behaviours such as hand washing, hair plucking, trichotillomania, onychophagia, picking of a minor irregularity in the skin or lesions on the skin and repetitive bathing or scratching (Hatch et al., 1992 Stein & Hollander, 1992 Monti et al., 1998 Calikusu et al., 2003). The patient with OCD feels driven to perform in response to an obsession which, if resisted, produces anxiety. The compulsive scratching of OCD may exacerbate a primary skin disorder such as psoriasis, eczema and other pruritic conditions, or cause flare-ups of acne as in acne excoriee. OCD symptoms...
Used by these patients were concealment and avoidance, which were mostly utilised in order to avoid negative reactions from others. Moreover, acne patients have been shown to limit exposure through social avoidance and to conceal skin lesions (Kellett & Gilbert, 2001). Psoriasis patients have also been found to engage in anticipatory and avoidance coping behaviours, which are unrelated to the severity of their condition and this is hypothesised to relate to stigmatisation and rejection (Griffiths & Richards, 2001). Like previous work on disfigurement and social anxiety, skin disease patients use these dysfunctional behavioural strategies to manage the impression they make on others and their frequent use illustrates the overriding concerns about social exclusion (Thompson et al., 2002). Feelings of anxiety, uncertainty and helplessness are often cited by dermatology patients as accompanying the diagnosis of their skin condition. Without the knowledge of when or how the condition will...
Many dermatoses may be provoked by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and they may be acute or chronic. In addition, a number of other dermatoses may be exacerbated by exposure to sunlight these include acne, atopic eczema, dermatomyositis, erythema multiforme, herpes simplex, Darier disease, lichen planus, autoimmune blistering disorders, psoriasis, rosacea, and seborrhoeic dermatitis. Some of the more common problems included in this section are presented in Table 9.4.
Each time a new formulation of one of these compounds is to be brought to market. The FDA has provided a series of numerous monographs, each one of which deals with a particular narrow therapeutic area, ranging from acne and anthelminthics to hormones and weight control. The therapeutic area is discussed in some detail and specific requirements for well-established drugs in that area are set forth. As long as a new formulation remains within the exact requirements set forth in the monograph for type of drug, dosage, indication, and labeling statements, a compound may be formulated and marketed on the judgment of the company alone. No further pre-approval or examination of any application to the FDA is necessary. However, if the requirements set forth in the monograph for a particular compound are to be changed in any way by a different dosage, a new indication, or by changes in labeling, the formulation no longer is covered by the monograph and it is necessary to submit a full NDA. As...
Self-esteem has been most studied in relation to acne and studies have clearly demonstrated that adolescents with acne do have lower self-esteem than non-affected adolescents (Papadopoulos et al., 2000 Smith, 2001). Unfortunately, one of the more effective types of medication used for acne has been linked with concerns about depression and suicide in young people, although the evidence as to the drug's causal role in this is not clear as yet. Given the high rate of depression and suicidal ideation amongst adolescents in general, and adolescents with acne in particular, the treatment with isotretinoin needs to be carefully monitored to ensure fluctuations in mood are identified and if necessary can be modified (Hull & D'Arcy, 2003).
There are a large number of studies that have shown that any form of physical illness during childhood increases the risk of psychological difficulties for the child (Lavigne & Faier-Routman, 1992 Wallander & Varni, 1998). There is also evidence from a few studies about the specific impact of a skin disorder on childhood psychological problems. For example, Absolon et al. (1997) found that children with eczema had higher rates of behavioural problems than healthy children. Rates of psychological difficulties are even higher among young people with acne and up to a half of 12-20-year olds with acne have been shown to have psychological or social problems (Smithard et al., 2001).
Avoidant Attachment Style 'I never leave the house without makeup, even if it's to go to the shop next door. On a bad day, I won't even leave my bedroom without makeup (I live with three men). What I hate is the time it takes. People always make fun of me (in a nice way ) about how long it takes me to get ready and I wish I could be ready in 5 minutes because applying all the makeup is really a problem. Sometimes it takes up to half an hour. I know I can look great with make-up on, and no one even notices I have a problem if I'm covering it up, but I live in terror of people seeing how I really look. I won't go swimming in the summer and when I'm dating someone (as I am now) I make up a million excuses as to why they can't stay the night, to the point of ruining the relationship. I don't want to have to tell everyone in my life . how insecure I am about the way I look' (Female acne patient).
The psychiatric morbidity in acne (Gupta & Gupta, 2001b) is often the most important index of disease severity and often the most important factor in deciding whether or not to institute treatments for the acne, especially in the case of mild-to-moderate disease. The psychiatric morbidity in acne can be severe and comparable to the disability resulting from other chronic disorders such as diabetes and asthma (Mallon et al., 1999). In contrast to psoriasis, the severity of acne does not necessarily correlate with the severity of depression (Aktan et al., 2000 Yazici et al., 2004), as even mild-to-moderate acne has been associated with depression, suicidal ideation (Gupta & Gupta, 1998) and completed suicide (Cotterill & Cunliffe, 1997). Adolescent acne patients who experience problems at school or work and blame it mainly on their acne may be clinically depressed (Gupta et al., 1998). Treatment of both mild-to-moderate non-cystic acne (Gupta et al., 1990) and the treatment of cystic...
Increasingly then, within the dermatological literature, attention was given to the therapeutic benefits that might derive from psychological interventions beyond those of standard medical care. Given the close and clear associations between psychological factors and cutaneous conditions, it is not surprising that the effects of such treatment have been investigated. The literature has documented psychological interventions for a number of cutaneous conditions, such as vitiligo, psoriasis, acne and atopic dermatitis, which have been suggested to be as effective for each of these types of disorders as classical medical procedures (Van Moffaert, 1992 Papadopoulos & Bor, 1999). For example, in their review of psychological therapies for the treatment of psoriasis, Winchell and Watts (1998) describe a case in which two psychiatric patients with psoriasis were given a suggestion that imipramine would have beneficial effects on their skin condition. Following this suggestion one of the...
A 21-question format was suggested in 1970 to record, in a standard way, the impact of skin disease on QoL (Whitmore, 1970). Other suggestions concerning criteria for assessing the impact of permanent skin impairment (Committee, 1970) and systems for wider assessment of disability (Robinson, 1973) were also proposed. The first dermatology disease-specific instrument, the Psoriasis Disability Index (PDI) (Finlay & Kelly, 1985 Kelly & Finlay, 1987) was initially used to assess the impact of hospital admission on disability in patients with psoriasis and has subsequently been used widely (Lewis & Finlay, 2004). The use of validated, standardised general health measures in dermatology, such as the UK Sickness Impact Profile (Finlay et al., 1990) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) (Nichol et al., 1996) followed in the early 1990s. Several dermatology disease-specific QoL measures for use in acne, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, alopecia, leg ulcers and others were described during the 1990s and...
BDD presents as a preoccupation with an imagined defect in appearance or if a slight anomaly is present, the individual's concern is excessive (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). BDD is also referred to as dysmorphophobia and 'dermatological non-disease' (Cotterill, 1981) in the dermatological literature. In one study 8.8 of patients with mild acne had BDD (Uzun et al., 2003). The complaints in BDD commonly involve imagined or slight flaws of the face or head such as thinning hair, acne, wrinkles, scars, vascular markings, paleness or redness of the complexion, swelling, facial disproportion or asymmetry, or excessive facial hair. The most common areas of concern involve the skin and hair. Some associated features of BDD include repetitive behaviours such as excessive grooming behaviour. This may manifest as excessive hair combing, hair removal, hair picking or picking of the skin, or ritualised make-up application. The main purpose of the repetitive behaviour is to improve or...
Logical data are based on challenge tests in cosmetic formulations, data which are of great value to the cosmetic microbiologist. An investigation of its activity against a series of Pseudomonas species and strains (Berke & Rosen, 1978) showed that in a challenge test 0.3 of the compound cleared all species but P. putida and P. aureofaciens in 24 h. The latter species were killed between 3 and 7 days. In an agar cup-plate test, 1 solution gave the following size inhibition zones (mm) Staph, aureus, 7,6 Staph, aureus, penicillin sensitive, 15.5 Staph, albus, 9.0 B. subtilis, 15.0 Corynebacterium acne, 5.0 E. coli, 3.6 P. ovale, 2.0.
One cause of TC is the external beam radiotherapy widely used from 1920 to 1960 in children for treating benign conditions of the head, neck, and upper chest, such as tinea capitis, acne, tonsillar hypertrophy, and thymic enlargement. In 1949, Quimby and Werner 5 suggested a relationship between neck irradiation and the development of TC later in life. The thyroid gland in childhood is highly sensitive to radiation.After 1950,the use of radiotherapy for benign conditions gradually diminished. Currently, certain diagnostic techniques, especially fluoroscopy, can also involve radiation exposure in the range implicated in the pathogenesis of thyroid tumors 6 . Moreover, medically indicated radiation therapy for the treatment of assorted malignancies,especially acute lymphocytic leukemia and Hodgkin's disease, continues to be administered. Scattered radiation from the primary fields of therapy, which transverses thyroid tissue, results in sublethal thyroid irradiation in such patients.
Another possibility involves attribution theory, particularly beliefs about the cause of the condition (Weiner et al., 1988). It seems that people are more likely to be stigmatised if they are seen as having control over the onset or maintenance of their condition (Weiner et al., 1988 Crandall & Moriarty, 1995 Martini & Page, 1998). This idea is particularly relevant to understanding the stigmatisation experienced by people who have nicotine or alcohol dependence, but perhaps also to acne since there is a widespread belief that a poor diet and an unhealthy lifestyle can contribute to its development. The Just World Hypothesis is related to attributions. This is the notion that negative events occur to people because of retributive justice for their actions (Lerner & Miller, 1978). That is, people get what they deserve if someone has a skin disease they must have done something to merit their appearance.
Physical changes may cause psychological discomfort. Adolescents are particularly concerned about whether they are the right shape or size and whether they measure up to the ideal adolescent. Rapid growth, awkwardness, acne, voice changes, menarche, and other developments may produce emotional distress. Therefore, it is not surprising that the timing of physical and sexual maturity may have an important influence on psychosocial adjustment. Adolescents are generally concerned about anything that sets them apart from their peers. Being either the first or last to go through puberty can cause considerable self-consciousness.
Focal laser ablation of acne scars was one of the earliest procedures performed by cutaneous laser surgeons in the early 1980s. Although the freehand airbrush technique could be performed on tattoos and still leave a cosmetically acceptable scar on the trunk and extremities, the artistry required made laser resurfacing of large areas of acne scarring or rhytids on the face potentially more hazardous than dermabrasion. It was especially worrisome because the latter healed within a 2-week time frame while laser wound healing was prolonged often beyond the 2-week window of healing after which unsightly scars could develop. Though scanners had been coupled earlier to the CO2 laser for gynecologic cervical ablation, only in 1982 did Brauner and Schliftman first introduce to the USA the Sharplan microslad scanner (182) which allowed precise controllable movement of the beam in an X- Y grid pattern with uniform though Gaussian ablation. Such uniformity not only led to better results in...
Maloprim, a combination of dapsone and pyri-methamine, or pyrimethamine alone was the choice for another 20 . A Canadian missionary in Malawi, using dapsone and pyrimethamine for malaria prophylaxis, died in 1999 from complications related to malaria, underscoring concerns regarding resistance (Kain et al., 2000). Agranulocytosis developed in 1 2000 when the dose of dapsone and pyrimethamine was increased to improve efficacy (Friman et al., 1983). Doxycycline has been recommended as an alternative to mefloquine, yet it is not widely utilized by members of this community, in part because of concerns regarding safety and tolerance. However, tetracycline derivatives have been utilized from long-term treatment of other disorders such as acne.
Unemployment and acne. British Journal of Dermatology, 115, 386. Rubinow, D.R., Peck, G.L., & Squillace, K.M. (1987). Reduced anxiety and depression in cystic acne patients after successful treatment with oral isotretinoin. Journal of American Academy Dermatology, 17(1), 25-32.
The interface between psychiatry and dermatology is multidimensional and begins in early development. The skin is a vital organ of communication and the earliest social interactions between the infant and its caregivers occur via the body, especially through touch. A disruption in tactile nurturance, for example, as a result of a skin disorder during infancy or due to childhood abuse and or neglect can be associated with serious psychiatric morbidity in later life including major depressive disorder, body image pathologies, a tendency to self-injure and dissociative states when there is significant psychological trauma present in association with the neglect. The importance of the skin in social communication is further exemplified during adolescence when the development of a cosmetically disfiguring skin disorder such as acne can be associated with depression, suicidal ideation and body image disorders including eating disorders. The role of the skin as an organ of communication...
Skin disease is very common among children and young people. For example, up to 20 of young children develop eczema and the majority of young people develop some symptoms of acne temporarily during adolescence (McHenry et al., 1995 Smithard et al., 2001). However, there is surprisingly little research on the psychological impact of skin disease in childhood and the focus of most research in paediatric psychology has been on life-threatening conditions, such as cancer. Despite the lack of research, there is widespread acknowledgement of the impact of skin disease on the psychological well-being and quality of life of children, and increasing awareness of the importance of understanding the psychological impact of skin disorders on children and their families (Howlett, 1999).
In cases of abnormal vaginal bleeding, a careful physical exam may reveal findings pointing towards a specific diagnosis. Obviously the patient's vital signs are important, especially in the presence of acute or substantial bleeding, or when an abnormal pregnancy may be present, situations in which immediate surgical or medical intervention may be in order. The presence of a goiter may suggest hy-pothyroidism, and acne and hirsutism may suggest polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), often associated with anovulatory DUB. The pelvic exam is particularly important. The vagina and cervix should be thoroughly inspected for lesions, and the amount of ongoing bleeding noted. Bimanual exam may reveal evidence for an intrauterine or ectopic pregnancy, uterine myomas or adenomyosis, a Mullerian anomaly with partial outflow obstruction, or an ongoing pelvic infection.
Cess production of mineralocorticoids adds the symptoms of hypertension and hypokalemic alkalosis. The coinciding effects of increased androgen production include amenorrhea, hirsuitism, and acne. No wonder the patient has, on top of all this, stress ulcers and polycythemia (excess red cell concentration), too.
A slight tremor in the hands may indicate the first symptoms of Parkinson's disease, and the tremor may or may not also be found in the legs, jaws, and neck. An interesting symptom that may appear in later stages of the disease is seborrhea, or acne. Intellectual functioning usually remains normal, but approximately 20 percent of the patients experience dementia and have a progressive loss of intellectual abilities and impairment of memory. It is not yet clear how the dementia of Parkinson's disease is related to the dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease. Depression also may occur in patients, with approximately one-third of them having depression at any one time. The depression may be directly related to the disease, or it may be a reaction to some of the medication.
In the early 1990s within a decade of the marriage of surgeon and industry serendipity reminded us that not all laser developments are predetermined rationally. In 1993, Alster reported that, when treating hypertrophic, persistently red scars for the erythema with a pulsed dye laser, she obtained not just improvement of the erythema but a distinct textural improvement, so much so that the scars flattened, occasionally dramatically, after several sessions (299). At first argon laser induced scars, then hypertrophic scars of other cause, facial acne scars, and even keloidal sternotomy scars responded. When Alster considered atrophic scars she found a similar result. The scar texture improved to the eye.
Weinstein (1984) found that compared with patients receiving only medical treatment (psorasen plus ultraviolet light A, PUVA), both psychological treatment groups, one receiving progressive relaxation and guided imagery and the other meeting to discuss psychosocial concerns about psoriasis, were effective in reducing the signs and symptoms of psoriasis. Robinson et al. (1996) found a significant decrease in anxiety and an increase in confidence of facially disfigured people (among whom were people with acne and vitiligo) after a social skills workshop that aimed at improving social interaction skills. Additionally, Ehlers et al. (1995), in their controlled trial, used relaxation therapy with patients with atopic dermatitis and found significant improvement in the skin condition.
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