The Power of Positive Affirmations
The short-term course of these diseases is stormy for several other reasons. Most persons are diagnosed with these conditions during their late teens or early twenties, a time of life when most people feel almost invulnerable to disease. For many of these young people, the most common response to a diagnosis of mental illness, especially if a remission of symptoms is obtained through medication, is denial (Fox, 2004). Active denial of a potentially lifelong, debilitating mental illness is, in some ways, a natural, expected, life-affirming response. Unfortunately, it often leads to noncompliance or nonadherence with medication regimens and severe relapse.
In another study, Phelps and colleagues 99 assessed the consequences of unilateral amygdala damage in the emotional memory for words while also recording skin conductance responses (SCRs). They administered a surprise recall test 1 min after encoding and found that negative and positive words were better remembered by all groups, with no differences between the patient and the control groups. Because of the observed greater SCR responses for neutral words compared to the emotion word category, the authors argued that the emotional words used (negative and positive) were probably not arousing enough to produce any group differences in emotional memory performance. They then performed a follow-up study to specifically evaluate the influence of arousal on memory 51 . Subjects were presented with a list of words (arousing and neutral). These arousing words elicited increased SCRs and were rated as more arousing than neutral words by all groups. Two free-recall tests were administered,...
It is also known that many stress-related genes are induced during senescence. These include metallothionein-like genes from rice and Arabidopsis (Hensel et al., 1993 Hsieh et al., 1995) and genes involved in the oxidative stress response such as ascorbate oxidase (Callard et al., 1996) and anionic peroxidase (Tournaire et al., 1996). These genes may play a role in protecting the cellular functions required for progression and completion of senescence. It is likely that they affect progression of senescence at least partially. Interestingly, the Arabidopsis thaliana protein CEF makes yeast more tolerant to hydroperoxides, affirming the genetic control of stress resistance (Belles-Boix et al., 2000).
The subject, Oreskes et al. (1994 643) argued, A match between predicted and obtained output does not verify an open model. . . . If a model fails to reproduce observed data, then we know that the model is faulty in some way, but the reverse is never the case. Assuming so is a logical fallacy called affirming the consequent. Numerical models are a form of highly complex scientific hypothesis unlike simple null models that we are accustomed to testing . . . verification is impossible. The utility of models is to guide further study or help make predictions and decisions regarding complicated systems thus they warrant testing, but that testing should be viewed as a never-ending process of refinement, properly called benchmarking or calibration. Given the basis of habitat suitability models and the complexity of their many interacting variables, it is likely that any such model could be improved through rigorous testing.
It is hoped that this principle explains the partial failure of both psychology's re-decision and the New Age thinker's thought affirmation. In both cases, the observer creates an unwanted belief, such as, The world isn't safe, and attempts to change the belief to, The world is safe. Every time you write, affirm, or re-decide 'The world is safe, you are re-enforcing its opposite. You must keep the first decision there to know what you don't want.
Juvenile justice centers can maintain a ban on same-sex sexual contact while maintaining policies that are affirming to all sexual minority youth. This includes implementing training for staff on sensitivity issues and respecting differences. Additionally, if sexual minority youth are experiencing harassment within the facility, appropriate action must be taken to assure their safety. Juvenile justice authorities can also partner with the public health community to secure successful reentry for GLBTQ youth. This includes addressing family counseling needs, locating proper shelter and interventions to limit risk behavior including survival sex.
It is very important for the child that his or her mother is able to overcome high levels of anxiety and is able to manage the child's skin condition confidently. It is also important for the mother to feel she is able to love and fully accept her child despite any appearance difficulty. If the child's mother is able to become resolved about the child's condition, she is more likely to enable her child to develop a positive attitude towards his or her own skin, and develop a good sense of self-esteem. She will also be in the best position to deal with any anxieties or difficulties her child has in a constructive way.
Tasks (i.e., where there is a job opening). Supportive others can provide material resources (i.e., transportation to an interview appointment or child-care assistance). Finally, supportive others can provide affirmation of one's worth and competence especially during stressful times. Such affirmation is critical to continuing goal-directive behaviors, especially following periods of failure.
Melanie Klein 39 laid particular stress on the early, terrifying anxiety resulting as the constitutional destructive potential, the death instinct, emerges in the child's mind. This anxiety sets up unconscious processes of affirmation of a perfect, omnipotent identity, with denial of the internal destructive impulse, splitting off of the dangerous aspects and projection of these components onto family members, objects of the outside world, or the person's own organs. The targets of this projective identification become dangerously destructive in the mind of its author, who is not aware of the process, but who expels them from his mind, and they subsequently set in motion persecutory or hypochondriac anxieties. According to Klein, however, these identification processes do not change their containers, except in the mind of the person making the identification. Once past the paranoid-schizoid and depressive phases, a person can find themselves later in a paranoid-schizoid or depressive...
The empirical evidence that exists to date indicates that prisoners deem oral health a priority and that access to oral health services improves the conditions of their mouths. For instance, among prisoners in Maine, smoking and dental health were the most commonly reported health problems after mental health and substance abuse (Maine Civil Liberties Union, 2003). A recent study of continuously incarcerated individuals in the North Carolina prison system found that the prison dental care system was able to markedly improve the oral health of a sample of inmates (Clare, 2002), affirming the idea that dental health improves when access to services is provided. Even still, despite improvement, the remaining dental needs of these felons were deemed to be substantial.
In general, the literature suggests that persons with disabilities are stigmatized and more likely to be devalued as a group relative to persons without disabilities (Esses & Beaufoy, 1994 Wright, 1960 Yuker, 1994). The level of stigmatization and intolerance seems to be mediated by ethnicity. The literature suggests that there is more acceptance and positive attitudes toward people with disabilities among African Americans than Caucasians (Grand & Strohmer, 1983). In a study of attitudes toward persons with disabilities, using college students as subjects, Grand and Strohmer (1983) found that African Americans had more positive attitudes than White Americans. The authors speculated that this difference might be in part due to perceived similarity of stigmatization and minority group status among African Americans and persons with disabilities. In a study of 170 African Americans with disabilities, Belgrave (1991) investigated the influence of several psychological and sociological...
Process of individuation, which Jung came to associate with objectivity and detachment from emotional ties. Another insight that Jung derived from his illness was an attitude of acceptance an affirmation of things as they are an unconditional 'yes' to that which is acceptance of the conditions of existence as I see them and understand them, acceptance of my own nature, as I happen to be. He died in June 1961 after a brief illness.
When we attempt to resist the first part-(icle) or creation we continue to re-enforce it. This occurs in thought affirmation when the original belief or part-(icle) has not been seen as made of the same energy as the second part-(icle). An affirmation, Life is easy, usually is resisting the prior belief, Life is hard. To We generally would not insist on a new belief or affirmation unless we were still linked or believed the prior creation. So as we write, I am worthy of making money, we are actually supporting the old maxim, I'm unworthy of making money. Each time we write, I am worthy of making money, we are re-enforcing its opposite, earlier-created belief.
As stated earlier, it is important to be clear when we use the term automaticity in the context of implementation intentions. We use the word automatic in terms of Bargh's (1994) definition. Bargh argued that mental processes at the level of complexity studied by social psychologists are not exclusively automatic or exclusively controlled but are in fact combinations of the features of each (p. 3). Bargh suggested that there are three ways in which an individual may be unaware of a mental process (a) A person may be unaware of the stimuli itself (e.g., subliminal perception), (b) a person may be unaware of the way in which he or she categorizes a stimulus event (e.g., stereotyping), and (c) a person may be unaware of the way in which his or her judgments or subjective feeling states are determined or influenced. For example, one may find a perceptual categorization task very fluid and easy to complete and may misattribute this feeling of ease to an incorrect cause because it is most...
We can also set cognitive and affective goals, along with behavioral or action-oriented goals. For example, an affective goal may be to decrease one's negative thinking pattern following an aversive situation. If I don't get a job, I will be able to control my anxiety (affective goal) and not view myself as worthless (cognitive goal). As with behavioral self-efficacy, strategies can be used to increase cognitive and affective self-efficacy by identifying cognitive and affective goals (Maddux & Lewis, 1995). Cognitive and affective subgoals, along with behavioral subgoals, can be used to reach larger goals. For example, one affective subgoal may be to repeat an affirmation to oneself each day. Another may be to think about a pleasant experience whenever one starts to feel anxious.
There are two general types of coping problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping. Problem-focused coping involves efforts to remove or alter the source of stress. Emotion-focused coping efforts are directed at reducing the emotional distress brought on in a given situation (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989). Some types of problem-focused coping strategies include (a) active coping (actually doing something to remove the stressor), (b) planning (thinking about how to cope with the stressor), and (c) seeking social support for emotional reasons (seeking advice and information). Examples of emotion-focused coping include (a) positive reinterpretation (viewing the stressor in a positive way), (b) denial (refusing to deal with the stressor), and (c) seeking social support for emotional reasons (seeking moral support, reassurance, affirmation). As noted earlier, problem-focused coping will work only if the individual has some control over the source of the problem. Therefore, there...
Claude Steele, Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychology at Stanford University, has focused his theoretical research for decades on the social psychology of race and race relations. Steele's interest in the processes of self-evaluation, and the coping mechanisms that come into play when self-image is threatened, has led to his general theory of self-affirmation and the concept he calls stereotype threat. This threat, according to Steele, characterizes the daily experiences of black students on predominantly white campuses and in a predominantly white society.
Anna Freud, in addition to being the youngest daughter of Sigmund Freud, was a pivotal figure in the field of child psychoanalysis and development. She was born in Vienna, Austria, and educated at private schools in Vienna. From the beginning Anna did not form a close bond with her mother, but she did feel especially close to her father while growing up. She received much affirmation from the elder Freud, and he routinely expressed his approval of her intellectual interests and pursuits.
In a study of United Kingdom prison officers working with dangerous and severe personality disorders, Bowers et al. (2006) assessed staff attitudes toward personality disorders using the Attitude to Personality Disorder Questionnaire (APDQ). Over the 16 months of the study those staff with a more positive attitude toward personality disorder had improved general health and job performance, less burnout, and a more favorable impression of managers. This supports the contention that positive attitudes toward any category of inmates vary across prison personnel. However, without a full diagnostic picture of the inmates, there could exist Axis I disorders or histories of toxic brain damage or TBI with attendant symptoms that might unknowingly shape staff attitudes beyond the given singular personality disorder description.
Before examining how people reason deductively, two rules of inference must be considered modus ponens (the method of putting, which involves affirming a premise) and modus tollens (the method of taking, which involves negating a premise). Considering P and Q as content-free abstract variables (much like algebraic variables), modus ponens states that given P implies Q and given P, one can infer Q. In the following example, applying modus ponens to 1 and 2 (in which P is it rained last night and Q is the game was canceled ), one can infer 3. Subjects saw only one side of each card but were told that a letter appeared on one side and a number on the other side. Subjects were asked to judge the validity of the following rule by turning over only those cards that provided a valid test of the following statement If a card has a vowel on one side, then it has an even number on the other side. Turning over E is a correct application of modus ponens, and turning over 7 is a correct...
Self Help Affirmations
The big book of affirmations from personal development authors. An affirmation is something you say to yourself. Everybody uses them on purpose or accidentally. You get up in the morning, leap out of bed and proclaim,