Urea and ammonia removal are needed m kidney failure, liver failure, environmental decontamination and regeneration of water supply in space travel. Standard dialysis machines are usually complex and expensive. Several alternatives have not been sufficiently effective. Prakash and Chang therefore studied the use of bioencapsulated genetically engineered E coli DH5 cells containing K. aerogens urease gene (26,27). The bioencapsuiation of the genetically engineered bacteria was prepared by the general procedure using the apparatus assembly shown m Fig. 1. The details of the bioencapsuiation process parameters are described m Section 5.
3.3 2.1 Efficiency of Removing Urea and Ammonia from Plasma In Vitro
Results show that log phase APA microencapsulated bacteria lowered 87.89 ± 2.25% of the plasma urea within 20 min and 99.99% of urea in 30 min (Fig. 6). Encapsulated bacteria are slightly more effective m removing urea from the plasma than from the modified reaction media. The bacteria did not produce ammonia during urea utilization. Furthermore, the encapsulated bacteria decrease plasma ammonia concentrations from 975 ±70.15 to 81.15 + 7.37 \xM in 30 min (27). This ammonia removal efficiency of encapsulated bacteria m plasma is not significantly different than in the aqueous media. This efficiency of ammonia removal is better than currently used methods for urea or ammonia removal (27).
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