Reporter genes have also been engineered into viral vectors. The reporter gene can be used to track the type of cells the virus infects, the timing and duration of expression for viral genes (43), and viral latency (44). By linking viral promoter and enhancer elements to reporter genes in viral or plasmid DNA vectors, an increased understanding of the control of viral genes has been possible (45). This type of understanding has been applied to the development of genetically engineered reporter cell lines used for detection of virus, such as herpes simplex virus, in clinical samples (46)
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