Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Understanding And Treating ADHD
Attention Deficit Disorder or ADD is a very complicated, and time and again misinterpreted, disorder. Its beginning is physiological, but it can have a multitude of consequences that come alongside with it. That apart, what is the differentiation between ADHD and ADD ADHD is the abbreviated form of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, its major indications being noticeable hyperactivity and impulsivity.
Treatment for reactive airway disease, for which all premature infants are at risk, and treatment of infection may contribute to higher average outpatient costs among those born pre-term. The relatively high outpatient medical care costs in the upper tail of the medical care cost distribution for those born at 32 to 36 weeks of gestation noted earlier is likely explained, in part, by the costs incurred by individuals with developmental disabilities. LBW is clearly a risk factor for developmental disabilities and their associated costs and one that is correlated with gesta-tional age. The extent to which these risk factors contribute independently to these developmental disability costs is not fully understood. Future studies should investigate costs for other disabling conditions which were not available for these analyses but are prevalent among preterm infants such as asthma and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Imaging studies have shown that some frontal and basal ganglia regions are smaller in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than in controls, consistent with neuropsychological evidence of impaired executive function (see 11 for a review). Although poor performance of hyperactive children on neuropsychological tests of attention has been reported 12 , other work has focused on response initiation and inhibition. The rate of inhibition failure in a go-no go'' task was high in ADHD 13 , a finding which is consistent with the construct of impulsiveness, i.e. reduced ability or willingness to inhibit inappropriate actions and to wait for a delayed consequence 12 . However, subsequent work suggests that the response style in children with ADHD may be inefficient (slow and inaccurate) rather than impulsive (fast and inaccurate) 11, 14, 15 .
Children in the juvenile justice system have demographics and clinical characteristics similar to those of children in foster care (although their median age is higher). They also have high levels of chronic health conditions, especially mental health conditions (particularly attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder) (AAP, 2001).
Major Issues And Directions For Future Research Toward A Clinical Neuropsychology Of Prospective Memory
Include other brain diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis), psychiatric disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, depression), substance abuse (e.g., alcohol, cannabis, MDMA), viral infections (e.g., HIV and Herpes Simplex Encephalitis), and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD, autism). The patient groups were chosen in these studies mainly because they were reported to have prospective memory problems or because their pathology is related to brain areas that are supposed to be related to prospective memory. Most of these studies compared the performance of clinical groups and matched controls on one or more types of prospective memory (e.g., time-, event-, or activity-based) using tasks developed in the experimental literature. Typically, the results of these studies indicate that these patients tend to be impaired on one or more types of prospective memory (refer to Table 13.1).
Overview There is currently little research on prospective memory in childhood and adolescence, and even fewer studies have investigated whether the development of prospective memory skills is negatively affected by psychopa-thologies such as autism or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In individuals with autism (Ozonoff & Jensen, 1999 Ozonoff & McEvoy, 1994 Prior & Hoffmann, 1990 Rumsey & Hamburger, 1988) and in those with ADHD (Willcutt, Doyle, Nigg, Faraone, & Pennington, 2005) executive dysfunctions are well documented. Hence, given the assumed involvement of executive functions in prospective memory, it was expected that children with autism or ADHD would be impaired in carrying out intended actions. ADHD Two studies on multitasking found that children diagnosed with ADHD have difficulties in the coordination of several to-be-performed tasks where the switching from one task to another may require some form of prospective remembering (Clark, Prior, & Kinsella, 2000...
See also Anxiety Disorders Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Clinical Depression Depression Drug Therapies Madness Historical Concepts Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Personality Disorders Schizophrenia Background, Types, and Symptoms Schizophrenia Theoretical Explanations.
Parenting skills Parenting is a complicated role and includes complex cognitive and emotional tasks. In most communities, little attention is paid to this very unique form of skill development, and it is virtually nonexistent in psychiatric rehabilitation services. Like other new or inexperienced parents, or parents facing challenges of disciplining children, parents who have a mental illness could benefit greatly from a parenting skills training program. A number of models are available for parents of children with attention deficit disorder that are based on behavioral principles that would be helpful to all parents, even those who have children who do not have these difficulties.
Other applications Behavior modification techniques are also being used to help people with a wide variety of everyday behavior problems, including those with addictive behaviors, aggression, attention deficit disorder, teen delinquency, and learning disabilities, among others. These methods have been used successfully in schools systems, prisons, mental health institutions, the workplace, and many other environments. Behavior modification has become so popular because it has been shown to be extremely effective in various situations and it empowers the individual using the techniques to change unwanted behavior. Though Skinner would attribute behavior change to environmental reinforcements in one's life to which a person has only limited control, modern adaptations of behavior modification instill the perception of control in the person attempting to make the behavioral change.
X-ALD affects the nervous system and the adrenal cortex, with three main phenotypes. One of them manifests between ages 4 and 8 as attention deficit disorder, followed by progressive impairment of cognition and behaviour, vision, hearing, and motor function, leading to total disability within two years. Another pheno-type, called adrenomyeloneuropathy, manifests in the late 20s as progressive paraparesis, sphincter disturbances, and hearing loss, while the third presents with primary adrenocortical insufficiency by age 7-8. Regardless of the presence of symptoms, 99 of patients have an elevated concentration of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA). The disease is caused by mutations of the ABCD1 gene, with more than 200 different mutations reported at the present time, which may be detected by PCR and direct sequencing, except for large deletions identified by Southern blot analysis. Carrier screening and prenatal diagnosis are available and the same method may be applied for PGD with...
Applied behavior analysis is the field of application that has arisen out of Skinner's behavioral principles. Applied behavior analysis was introduced first in educational settings. Applications in education have occurred at every level from preschool to university classrooms. Equally important has been repeated successful application to learners with autism, severe and profound delays in behavioral development, and attention deficit disorder, with and without hyperactive behavior. The application of behavioral principles has been shown to be effective across behaviors, settings, individuals, and teachers.
Among the earliest concerns about the health of premature infants was the association between preterm delivery and neurodevelopmental disabilities. Neurodevelopmental disabilities are a group of chronic interrelated disorders of central nervous system function due to malformation of or injury to the developing brain. The spectrum of neurodevelopmental disabilities includes the major disabilities cerebral palsy (CP) and mental retardation. Sensory impairments include visual impairment and hearing impairment. The more subtle disorders of central nervous system function include language disorders, learning disabilities, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), minor neuromotor dysfunction or developmental coordination disorders, behavioral problems, and social-emotional difficulties.
Although these distinctions provide a useful framework for interpreting rates of mortality, they do not explain the specific male susceptibility to diseases of infancy and childhood. Males are more likely to experience stillbirth, premature birth, congenital malformations, pulmonary hemorrhage, intracranial hemorrhage, respiratory distress, perinatal asphyxia, perinatal infection, cerebral palsy, and developmental delay. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is more likely to occur in males. In general, infants are at highest risk for SIDS during the first 2 to 4 months of life other risk factors include maternal smoking, exposure to a sub-optimal uterine environment, poor fetal growth, and prematurity. Males also face a higher incidence of neurobehavioral and developmental difficulties during childhood. In epidemiologic surveys, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) characterized by poor concentration ability, motoric hyperactivity, impulsivity, and, frequently, learning...
Behavior and social-emotional problems are more difficult to define clinically, and most of these data are elicited from surveys of parents and teachers. Symptoms suggestive of ADHD occur two to six times more frequently in children born preterm with birth weights of less than 1,000 grams, less than 1,500 grams, and less than 2,000 grams than in controls born full term (9 to 15 percent diagnosed with ADHD compared with 2 percent of controls born full term) (Aylward, 2002 Bhutta et al., 2002 Breslau, 1995 Levy, 1994 Pharoah et al., 1994 Saigal et al., 2001 Stjernqvist and Svenningsen, 1995 Szatmari et al., 1990 Taylor et al., 1998). Refinement of descriptions of impairments of attention and behavior provides further insight into the problems children born preterm and their families face. In a study of 8-year-old children born at less than 28 weeks of gestation or with birth weights of less than 1,000 grams, the preterm children had significantly lower scores for processing speed,...
Children who might now be diagnosed as having ADHD have been written about and discussed in scientific publications since the mid-1800's. Attention to ADHD began in the United States after an encephalitis epidemic in 1917. Because the damage to the central nervous system caused by the disease led to poor attention, impulsivity, and overactivity in children who survived, researchers began to look for signs of brain injury in other children who had similar behavioral profiles. By the 1950's, researchers began to refer to this disorder as minimal brain damage, which was then changed to minimal brain dysfunction (MBD). By the 1960's, however, the use of the term MBD was severely criticized because of its overinclusiveness and non-specificity. Researchers began to use terms that more specifically characterized children's problems, such as hyperkinesis and hyperactivity.
Ligands acting at histamine receptors have been a valuable source of medicines. The recent cloning of the H3 receptor has led to a resurgence of interest in the field. Several neurotransmitter systems are subject to modulation by neuronal H3 receptors and it is anticipated that the antagonists will be useful in the treatment of a range of diseases including narcolepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as well as improving cognition in situations such as Alzheimer's disease. Chapter 5 updates the medicinal chemistry of H3 receptor ligands which was last reviewed in this series in Volume 38.
Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral treatments have been used with ADHD children, with parents, and with teachers. Most of these techniques attempt to provide the child with a consistent environment in which on-task behavior is rewarded (for example, the teacher praises the child for raising his or her hand and not shouting out an answer), and in which off-task behavior is either ignored or punished (for example, the parent has the child sit alone in a chair near an empty wall, a time-out chair, after the child im pulsively throws a book across the room). In addition, cognitive-behavioral treatments try to teach ADHD children to internalize their own self-control by learning to stop and think before they act. Overall, behavioral and cognitive-behavioral treatments have been found to be relatively effective in the settings in which they are used and at the time they are being instituted. Like the effects of medication, however, the effects of behavioral and cognitive-behavioral...
Studies based on referrals to school psychologists or clinics reported that more males than females manifested a learning disorder. However, studies employing careful diagnostic assessment and strict application of the criteria have found more equal rates for males and females. LD often coexists with another disorder, usually language disorders, communication disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or conduct disorder.
Treatments of ADHD can be broken down into roughly two categories medication and behavioral or cognitive-behavioral treatment with the individual ADHD child, parents, or teachers. Traditional psychotherapy and play therapy have not been found to be effective in the treatment of ADHD. Stimulant medications have been used in the treatment of ADHD since 1937. The most commonly prescribed stimulant medications are methylphenidate (Ritalin), pemoline (Cylert), and dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine). Behavioral improvements caused by stimulant medications include those in impulse control and improved attending behavior. Overall, approximately 75 percent of ADHD children on stimulant medication show behavioral improvement, and 25 percent show either no improvement or decreased behavioral functioning. The findings related to academic performance are mixed. It appears that stimulant medications can help the ADHD child with school productivity and accuracy but not with overall academic achievement....
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is found in both children and adults. Children with ADHD have difficulties at school because of impulsivity and inattention. The underlying cause of ADHD is extremely complex, and the ways in which drugs used to treat it work are equally complex. The most successful treatments are with drugs that actually stimulate the central nervous system. Drug therapy is most effective when combined with behavioral treatments. The most commonly used psychostimulants are methylphenidate and pemoline, but amphetamines are sometimes used as well. Formerly, depressed patients were treated with amphetamines and similar compounds occasionally this use is still found. These stimulant drugs do improve school performance however, they may cause growth retardation in both height and weight. They may also cause insomnia and nervousness. Importantly, these drugs may be abused, leading ultimately to addiction, paranoia, and severe depression during withdrawal.
There are a number of additional problems associated with ADHD, including the greater likelihood of ADHD boys exhibiting aggressive and antisocial behavior. Although many ADHD children do not show any associated problems, many ADHD children show deficits in both intellectual and behavioral functioning. For example, a number of studies have found that ADHD children score an average of seven to fifteen points below other children on standardized intelligence tests. It may be, however, that this poorer performance reflects poor test-taking skills or inattention during the test rather than actual impairment in intellectual functioning. Additionally, ADHD children tend to have difficulty with academic performance and scholastic achievement. It is assumed that this poor academic performance is a result of inattention and impulsiveness in the classroom. When ADHD children are given medication to control their inattention and impulsiveness, their academic productivity has been shown to...