Natural Solution to get rid of Bacterial Vaginosis
The organism which we now know as Trichomonas vaginalis was first described in 1836 by the French scientist Alfred Donne he had observed it in the abnormal discharge from a woman suffering from vaginitis. Initially he was inclined to believe that the presence of these organisms was related to the existence of vaginitis but he later changed his mind after finding them in asymptomatic women. For the next 80 years the organisms were generally regarded as harmless commensals and it was not until 1916 that Hohne asserted that T. vaginalis was the aetiological agent in some cases of vaginitis. That concept took many years to become universally accepted (Honigberg, 1978) but no-one now doubts that T. vaginalis is a genuine pathogen. The organism naturally forms the subject matter of the greater part of Honigberg's monograph (1989) and three
These are QACs (see Fig. 2.22), which also fall into this grouping. The most important members are laurolinium acetate and dequalinium chloride (a bis-QAC). Both compounds possess antibacterial activity, especially against Gram-positive bacteria (Collier et ai., 1959 Cox & D'Arcy, 1962), as well as significant activity against many species of yeasts and fungi (Frier, 1971 D'Arcy, 1971).Dequalinium chloride is used for the treatment of vaginal infections and has been shown to have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against relevant organisms (Delia Casa et al., 2002). It is also used as lozenges
Given the association between genital tract infections such as bacterial vaginosis (BV) and preterm birth, a case-control study of 375 women examined the interactions among BV, the TNF-a genotype, and preterm birth (Macones et al., 2004). Maternal carriers of the rarer allele (TNF-a-2) were found to be at a significantly increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth (OR 2.7 95 percent CI 1.7 to 4.5). The association between carriage of the TNF-a-2 allele and pre-term birth was found to be modified by the presence of BV, such that those with a genotype that made them susceptible to preterm birth and BV had an increased odds of preterm birth compared with the odds for those who did not (OR 6.1 95 percent CI 1.9 to 21.0). The study thus provides evidence that an interaction between genetic susceptibility (i.e., carriage of TNF-a-2) and an environmental factor (i.e., BV) is associated with an increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an alteration of the maternal vaginal flora in which normally predominant lactobacilli are largely replaced by gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, such as Gardnerella vaginalis and Bacteroides, Prevotella, Mobiluncus, and Mycoplasma species. BV in pregnancy is consistently associated with a twofold increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth (Hillier et al., 1995 Meis et al., 1995). The association of BV with preterm birth has been reported to be stronger when the condition is present in the first half of pregnancy (Hay et al., 1994), but a recent analysis of the relationship between gestational age at the time of detection of BV and pregnancy outcome in 12,937 women found the odds ratio of preterm birth among BV-positive versus -negative women raged from 1.1 to 1.6 and did not vary significantly according to the gestational age at which BV was screened (Klebanoff et al., 2005, p.). Despite the consistency of the reports relating BV to preterm birth, the...
Most infections are asymptomatic but patients often present with pruritis ani and perineal pruritis. Symptoms are typically worse at night and may produce insomnia and restlessness. Heavily infected children may develop blood loss, poor concentration and emotional disturbance and enuresis. Local eczematous reactions and dermatitis artefacta may be seen. Chronic abdominal pain is probably more common than is currently recognised (see above). In girls, vulval vaginitis, acute urinary infections, enuresis and incontinence are associated with infection. In addition to this, many parents become anxious about the appearance or stigmata of worm infection.
Significantly increase the risk of a preterm delivery. These include multiple pregnancy, previous preterm delivery, vaginal infection, low socio-economic class, intravenous drug use and multiple sexual partners. Recently a diagnostic prognostic test using foetal fibronectin has become available, though sensitivity and specificity is not high enough to provide a conclusive diagnosis 4 .
These include bacterial infections eg leukorrhea, vaginitis, ulcerated sores, prolapse in which the internal portions of the vagina protrude out of the vaginal orifice, and occasionally cancerous tumours. Rectocele is caused when the muscles and connective tissues supporting the rectum and back wall of the vagina are weakened, usually due to repeated childbirth or aging, and the rectum sags until it bulges into the back wall of the vagina. A rectocele often occurs together with enterocele, which is a bulge of the small intestine into the vagina. Women with small rectoceles or enteroceles may not feel much distress a larger and more serious rectocele can cause discomfort and a sagging sensation in the pelvic area and difficulty in emptying the lower bowel. Both conditions can be corrected by surgery in which the small intestine and rectum are pushed back into place and held there by reconstructed pelvic muscles.
A review of seven randomized clinical trials of screening and antibiotic treatment of BV in pregnancy to reduce preterm birth found no benefit in low-risk women or in women with an unspecified increased risk of preterm birth (Guise et al., 2001 Okun et al., 2005). The most recent American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Practice Bulletin (ACOG, 2001) specifically noted There are no current data to support the use of . . . BV screening as a strategy to identify or prevent preterm birth. McDonald and colleagues (2005, p.) concluded in a recent Cochrane Review, Antibiotic treatment can eradicate bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy . . . but there is little evidence that screening and treating all pregnant women with asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis will prevent preterm birth and its consequences. For women with a previous preterm birth, there is some suggestion that treatment of bacterial vaginosis may reduce the risk of preterm prelabour rupture of membranes and low...
Although the strongest evidence associating preterm birth with infection is derived from intrauterine infections, considerable evidence also suggests that lower genital tract infections, especially bacterial vaginosis, contribute to prematurity. Bacterial vaginosis has been associated with preterm labor or delivery, amniotic fluid infection, chorioamnionitis, and postpartum endometritis. These associations have been reviewed extensively elsewhere (Kimberlin and Andrews, 1998) and are based on the findings of case-control and cohort studies that consistently demonstrate an approximate twofold increase in the rates of preterm labor or delivery among women with bacterial vaginosis (Kimberlin and Andrews, 1998) the recovery of bacterial vaginosis-associated microorganisms from the amniotic fluid of 30 percent of women with intact fetal membranes in preterm labor and subclinical amniotic fluid infection (Martius and Eschenbach, 1990) and the frequent recovery of bacterial...
A randomized trial of treatment for bacterial vaginosis (BV) supports these data (Hauth et al., 1995). Women with BV and a prepregnancy weight of less than 50 kilograms were randomly assigned to metronidazole and erythromycin antibiotic therapy or placebo. The incidence of preterm birth was 33 percent in the placebo group and 14 percent in the antibiotic-treated group (p 0.04). Thus, treatment of BV in underweight women reduces the risk of preterm birth. This is in contrast to the findings of several investigators who demonstrated that treatment of BV in a general obstetric population is ineffective (Carey et al., 2000).
A number of indirect lines of evidence suggest that the practice of vaginal douching might increase the risk of preterm birth. Douching is a common behavior and is more common among African-American women than white women, consistent with the increased prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and preterm birth among African-American women (Bruce et al., 2000). Furthermore, douching alters the vaginal microflora and may well facilitate the passage of vaginal pathogens to the upper reproductive tract, which contributes to inflammation and, possibly, to preterm birth. Few empirical evaluations of this hypothesis have been conducted thus far.
African-American women are more likely than white women to experience a number of infections, including bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted infections (Fiscella, 1995 Meis et al., 2000). Insofar as these infections are associated with preterm delivery, they may be responsible for a significant portion of the racial disparities in preterm birth rates (Fiscella, 1995). However, the cause of this increased susceptibility to infections among pregnant African-American women remains largely unknown, and to date antibiotic treatment of infections (other than for asymptomatic bacteriuria) during pregnancy has yielded modest or no benefits (Carey et al., 2000 McDonald et al., 2005) (see Chapter 9). Bacterial vaginosis is more common among socioeconomically disadvantaged women (Hillier et al., 1995 Meis et al., 1995). Given its association with preterm birth, it could be an important mediator of socioeconomic disparities in preterm birth rates. However, clinical trials of screening for...
This is a chronic infection of the genital tract of both sexes. In the female it presents with vaginitis accompanied by copious discharge in the male, with urethritis. source of infection. Transmission is by sexual intercourse or by indirect contact through contaminated clothing and other articles. Clinical manifestations occur more frequently in males than in females. The flagellate is commonly found in women during the reproductive period, and vaginal infection may be associated with lowered vaginal acidity.
Hammill HA (1989) Unusual causes of vaginitis (excluding trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis, and Candida albicans). Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics ofNorth America, 16, 337-345. Rioux JE, Devlin C et al. (2000) 17beta-estradiol vaginal tablet versus conjugated equine estrogen vaginal cream to relieve menopausal atrophic vaginitis (see comments). Menopause, 7, 156-161.
Traveling tends to promote a change in a woman's vaginal ecosystem that may result in increased vaginal discharge and or itching. One of the most common causes of vaginitis is Candida albicans. This organism usually causes a thick cottage cheese discharge with vulvar and vaginal itching. The risk of yeast vaginitis is greater when doxycycline is used for malarial prophylaxis or other antibiotics are used for the treatment of travelers' diarrhea, bronchitis or urinary tract infections. Several intravaginal creams and suppositories are available over the counter (see Table 24.16). Due to the messiness of vaginal creams, some women prefer to use an oral treatment such as fluconazole (Diflucan). Other women prefer the creams, as they help with local itching. Both should be included in the travel medicine kit. A mild hydrocortisone cream may also be included for vaginal itching. Another common cause of vaginitis is bacterial vagino-sis. This is caused by overgrowth of the bacteria in the...
Bacterial Vaginosis Facts
This fact sheet is designed to provide you with information on Bacterial Vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of atypical bacteria in the vagina.