Synovial bursa between the origins of the biceps femoris and semimembranosus muscles. B 2 Inferior subtendinous bursa of biceps femoris muscle. B. subtendinea m. bicipitis femoris inferior. Synovial bursa located partially on the fibular collateral ligament below the tendon of insertion of the biceps femoris. B
To facilitate soft tissue reconstruction around the fibular head, a part of the biceps femoris tendon is split and harvested with the fibula. After osteotomy at the appropriate distal site and dislocation of the proximal tibio-fibular joint, the fibula is left attached to its vascular pedicle and the tourniquet released. Bleeding should be observed either from the muscular cuff surrounding the physis or from the medullary canal. Then, the pedicle is divided and the fibula is transferred to the recipient site. Great care must be taken in repairing the lateral structures which stabilize the knee joint. The lateral collateral ligament, enhanced by the residual strip of biceps femoris tendon, is fixed to the lateral aspect of the tibia by means of transosseous stitches and stability is checked.
The stability of the shoulder depends on appropriate soft tissue reconstruction. Note the strip of biceps femoris tendon which is usually anchored to the glenoid in order to improve the stability of the joint. The rotator cuff is sutured contouring the fibular epiphysis. The soft tissue repair around the transferred epiphysis is complicated by the potential danger for the epiphyseal vascular network related to direct reinsertion on the bone of the rotator cuff and deltoid. For this reason the muscles are just sutured around the fibular head and the strip of biceps femoris tendon is anchored to the glenoid achieving acceptable stability (Fig. 10D.4). In some cases, however, a proximal displacement of the physis does occur due to anatomical discrepancy and insufficient stabilization.
Two-headed upper arm muscle with the three parts described below (nos. 13-15). i Radial tuberosity and ulna via the bicipital aponeurosis. A Flexion and supination of the elbow joint. I Musculocutaneous nerve. D 13 Long head of biceps. Caput longum. o Su-praglenoid tubercle. i Radial tuberosity and ulna. A Flexion and supination of the elbow joint, weak abduction of the shoulder joint. C D 14 Intertubercular tendon sheath. Vagina tendinis intertubercularis. Synovial sheath for the tendon of the long head of the biceps in the intertubercular groove. D 15 Short head of biceps. Caputbreve.o Coracoid process. i Radial tuberosity of ulna. A Flexion of the elbow joint and supination, forward flexion of the arm at the shoulder joint. C D 16 Bicipital aponeurosis. Aponeurosis m. bici-pitis brachii (aponeurosis bicipitalis) lacertus fibrosus . Medial expansion of the biceps tendon that attaches to the forearm fascia. A Transmits the pull of the biceps to the ulna when the...
Processus coracoideus. Hook-shaped process projecting anteriorly from the superior margin of the scapula just lateral to the scapular notch. Attachment site of the pectoralis minor, coracobrachialis and short head of the biceps muscles. A B Clavicle. Clavicula. Collar bone. C Extremitas sternalis. Sternal (medial) end of the clavicle facing the sternum. C Sternal articular surface. Facies articularis sternalis. Articular surface on the medial end of clavicle for articulation with the sternum. C impression for the costoclavicular ligament. Impressio ligamenti costoclavicularis. Roughened area on the inferior surface of the clavicle near the sternal end for attachment of the costoclavicular ligament. C Body (shaft) of clavicle. Corpus claviculae (claviculare). Middle portion of the clavicle. C Subclavian groove. Sulcus musculi subclavii. Elongated groove representing the deep attachment field of the subclavius muscle. C Acromial (lateral) end. Extremitas acromialis....
Elbow flexion can be obtained by substituting the function of the biceps muscle in longstanding brachial plexus injuries. Flexion and extension of the digits may also be restored by free muscle transfer in patients with Volkman's ischemic contracture, severe avulsion injuries or extensive electrical burns. Similarly functional restoration
Due to anatomical similarities, the contralateral fibula is usually preferred in the reconstruction of the distal radius. The bone fixation can be achieved either by plates or lag screws and it is usually facilitated by correspondence in transverse diameter between donor and recipient bones. The wrist joint is temporarily stabilized by a Kirshner wire which will be removed one month after surgery. The strip of biceps femoris tendon is used for soft tissue repair and anchored to the remaining distal radiocarpal capsule. By contrast, the distal radioulnar joint is left lax in order to prevent impingement between fibula and ulna which might interfere with pronosupination.
One of the most careful studies of ultrasound velocity in muscle was that of Mol and Breddels (1982). They measured the velocity of ultrasound in various types of muscle as a function of muscle fibre orientation and contraction state. The difference between ultrasound velocity along and across muscle fibres was found to be about 7 ms-1. Change of ultrasound velocity in human biceps muscle in vivo during contraction was about 3 ms-1, and the change in ultrasound velocity in isometrically contracting frog muscle was within the 1ms-1 measurement precision. The authors developed a theoretical model to explain their results and derived equations for the difference in the velocities of ultrasound across and along muscle fibres.
Schematic view of receptors and motor fibers in the control of muscle movement. In order to achieve smooth, precise control of muscle action, it is insufficient simply to have motor nerves innervating skeletal muscle fibers. Motion would be too jerky. It is important to have continuous feedback during muscle contraction as to the degree of muscle stretch, the speed of stretching, and the degree of muscle tension. The degree of stretch is not the same as the degree of tension. For instance, if both the biceps and its antagonist, the triceps muscle, contract simultaneously, the biceps muscle may not change its degree of stretch, but its tension will increase. As a general rule, when an individual tries to flex or extend a joint, inhibitory impulses are relayed to the antagonistic muscle (unless one tries purposefully to contract both the flexor and extensor muscles at the same time). Thus, on attempted biceps flexion (or for that matter the reflex in which the biceps tendon is...
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