Superior semicircular canal

Superior ampulla

Lateral semicircular canal

Posterior ampulla

111 segment (vertical, mastoid) of facial canal

Styloid process


Stylomastoid foramen

III segment (vertical, mastoid) of facial canal


Stylomastoid foramen Sigmoid sinus Condylar canal

Occipital condyle Lateral mass of atlas

Glossopharyngeal (IX Cranial Nerve), Vagus (X Cranial Nerve), Accessory (XI Cranial Nerve), Hypoglossal (XII Cranial Nerve) Nerves

The ninth (glossopharyngeal) and tenth (vagus) nerves arise from the upper part of the medulla, lateral to the olive. The eleventh (accessory) emerges behind or lateral to the olive, with several fibers extended along most of the medulla length. The twelfth (hypoglossal) nerve emerges from the anterolateral (preolivary) sulcus at the lower part of the medulla.

The IX, X and XI cranial nerves reach the pars nervosa of the jugular foramen, while the XII cranial nerve exits the skull through the hypoglossal canal.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

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