Basilar Artery and Branches

The basilar artery (BA) starts from the vertebral artery confluence and ends at its subdivision into the two posterior cerebral arteries. Its main branches are:

1. Pontine perforating arteries

They are median, paramedian, and lateral perforating branches destined to supply the midbrain,

2. Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)

It is the smallest of the three cerebellar arteries. It courses posteriorly, ventromedial to the facial and vestibulocochlear nerve, giving rise in 50 % of cases to the

3. Internal auditory (labyrinthine) artery. In the remaining cases, this artery can originate directly from the basilar artery or from the PICA. It follows facial and vestibulo-cochlear nerves in the internal acoustic canal. The AICA terminates by coursing over the anterolateral aspect of the cerebellum.

4. Superior cerebellar artery (SCA)

It arises immediately before the basilar artery bifurcation. It courses posterolateral, below the oculomotor nerve, then curves around the midbrain.

5. Posterior cerebral artery (PCA)

It is the terminal branch of the BA. During its course it furnishes important collaterals (posterior thai a mope rfo rating, medial posterior choroidal, lateral posterior choroidal and cortical arteries). Anatomically, it is divided into four portions:

"Hairpin" shape at the cross with the zygomatic bone

Middle deep temporal artery

Anterior deep temporal artery

Middle meningeal artery

Transverse facial artery

Maxillary artery

Inferior alveolar artery

Masseteric artery

Facial artery

Maxillary Artery

Infraorbital artery

Sphenopalatine arteries and nasal branches

Maxillary Artery

Infraorbital artery

Sphenopalatine arteries and nasal branches

Superficial temporal artery

Middle deep temporal artery

Middle meningeal artery

Maxillary artery

Greater (descending) palatine artery

Superior posterior alveolar artery

Buccal Transverse branches facial artery

Greater (descending) palatine artery

Superior posterior alveolar artery

Superficial temporal artery

Middle deep temporal artery

Middle meningeal artery

Maxillary artery

Buccal Transverse branches facial artery

External Carotid Artery

External Carotid Artery

Facial Artery Branches

Superficial temporal artery

Scalp's branches

Occipital artery

■ Muscular branches

Superficial temporal artery

Scalp's branches

Occipital artery

■ Muscular branches

Pi or precommun Seating or mesencephalic segment, Internal Carotid Artery which lies in the interpeduncular cistern, curving around the midbrain and ending at its junction with the posterior communicating artery. This segment gives off perforating branches destined to the midbrain and thalamus. P2 or ambient segment, which extends to the posterior aspect of the midbrain; P3 or quadrjgeminal segment, which goes from the quadrigeminal plate to the calcarme fissure. Sometimes it subdivides into two arteries; P4 or caica rine fissure includes the terminal branches (parieto-occipinl and calcarme arteries,cortical branches).

Bouthilller

Anterior choroidal artery Posterior communicating artery

Ophthalmic artery

Ophthalmic artery

Anterior choroidal artery Posterior communicating artery

Anterior choroidal artery Posterior communicating artery

Ophthalmic artery

Bouthilller

Ophthalmic artery

Anterior choroidal artery Posterior communicating artery

Middle internal frontal artery

Posterior internal frontal artery

Anterior internal frontal artery

Frontopolar artery

Orbitofrontai artery

Ophthalmic artery

Internal carotid artery: clinoid segment (C5)

Internal carotid artery: cavernous segment (C4)

internal carotid artery: lacerum segment (C3)

Internal Carotid Artery

Internal Carotid Artery

Middle internal frontal artery

Posterior internal frontal artery

Anterior internal frontal artery

Frontopolar artery

Orbitofrontai artery

Ophthalmic artery

Internal carotid artery: clinoid segment (C5)

Internal carotid artery: cavernous segment (C4)

internal carotid artery: lacerum segment (C3)

Frontopolar ArteryPrerolandic Frontal

Posterior parietal artery

Angular artery

Posterior temporal artery

Internal carotid artery: communicating segment (C7)

Internal carotid artery: ophthalmic segment (C6)

Pericallosa! artery Rolandic artery

Superior internal parietal artery

Inferior internal parietal artery

Fronto-opercular artery (prefrontal artery, prerolandic artery)

Anterior parietal artery

Posterior parietal artery

Angular artery

Posterior temporal artery

Internal carotid artery: communicating segment (C7)

Internal carotid artery: ophthalmic segment (C6)

Internal Carotid Artery

Peri cal I osa I artery

Anterior cerebral artery: pre-communicating segment(Al)

Middle cerebral artery: pre-bifurcation Ml segment

Internal carotid artery: clinoid segment (C5)

Peri cal I osa I artery

Anterior cerebral artery: pre-communicating segment(Al)

Middle cerebral artery: pre-bifurcation Ml segment

Internal carotid artery: clinoid segment (C5)

Internal carotid artery: cavernous segment (C4)

Internal Carotid Artery internal carotid artery: petrous segment (C2)

Anterior cerebral artery (bifurcation)

Anterior cerebral artery: postcommunicating segment (A2)

Internal carotid artery: communicating segment (C7)

Internal carotid artery: ophthalmic segment (C6)

Internal carotid artery: lacerum segment (C3)

Internal Carotid Artery

Internal Carotid Artery

Medial lentlculostriate arteries

Lateral lentlculostriate arteries

Middle cerebral artery: opercular segment (M3)

Middle cerebral artery: Insular segment (M2)

Middle cerebral artery: pre-bifurcation Ml segment

Middle cerebral artery: post-bifurcation M1 segment

Internal carotid artery: petrous segment (C2)

Basilar Artery Anatomy

Medial lentlculostriate arteries

Lateral lentlculostriate arteries

Middle cerebral artery: opercular segment (M3)

Middle cerebral artery: Insular segment (M2)

Middle cerebral artery: pre-bifurcation Ml segment

Middle cerebral artery: post-bifurcation M1 segment

Internal carotid artery: petrous segment (C2)

Callosomarginal artery

Pericallosal artery

Anterior cerebral artery [bifurcation;

Anterior cerebral artery: post-communicating segment (A2)

Anterior cerebral artery: pre-communicating segment (Al)

Anterior communicating artery

Internal carotid artery: ophthalmic segment (C6)

Internal carotid artery: dinoid segment (C5)

Internal carotid artery: cavernous segment (C4)

Basilar artery

Middle cerebral artery: post-bifurcation M1 segment

Middle cerebral artery: pre-bifurcation Ml segment

Posterior communicating artery

Posterior cerebral artery: ambient segment (P2)

Temporal branches

Basilar artery

Middle cerebral artery: post-bifurcation M1 segment

Middle cerebral artery: pre-bifurcation Ml segment

Anterior cerebral artery: pre-communicating segment (Al)

Posterior communicating artery

Posterior cerebral artery: ambient segment (P2)

Temporal branches

Posterior cerebral artery: pre-communicating segment (PI)

Anterior cerebral artery: post-communicating segment (A2)

Internal carotid artery

Middle cerebral artery: Insular segment (M2)

Posterior cerebral artery: quadrigeminal segment (P3)

Middle cerebral artery; opercular segment (M3)

Posterior cerebral artery: calcarine segment (P4)

Posterior cerebral artery: calcarlne segment (P4)

Anterior cerebral artery: post-communicating segment (A2)

Posterior cerebral artery: quadrigeminal segment (P3)

Anterior cerebral artery: pre-communicating segment (Al)

Posterior cerebral artery: J ambient segment (P2)

Posterior cerebral artery: .. horizontal or precommunicating segment (P1)

Basilar artery

Middle cerebral artery: opercular segment (M3)

Middle cerebral artery: prebifurcation Ml segment

Middle cerebral artery: insular segment (M2)

Middle cerebral artery (kneej

Middle cerebral artery: postbifurcation Ml segment

Superior cerebellar artery Internal carotid artery

Middle cerebral artery: opercular segment (M3)

Middle cerebral artery: prebifurcation Ml segment

Middle cerebral artery: insular segment (M2)

Middle cerebral artery (kneej

Middle cerebral artery: postbifurcation Ml segment

Superior cerebellar artery Internal carotid artery

Anterior communicating artery

Middle cerebral artery; insular segment (M2)

Middle cerebral artery (knee)

Middle cerebral artery: pre bifurcation M1 segment

Middle cerebral artery: post-bifurcation Ml segment

Internal carotid artery

Anterior communicating artery

Middle cerebral artery; insular segment (M2)

Middle cerebral artery (knee)

Middle cerebral artery: pre bifurcation M1 segment

Middle cerebral artery: post-bifurcation Ml segment

Internal carotid artery

Anterior cerebral artery: postcommunicating segment (A2)

Anterior cerebral artery: precommunicating Segment (Al)

Posterior cerebral artery: quadrigeminal segment (P3)

Posterior cerebral artery: ambient segment (P2)

Temporal branches

Posterior cerebral artery:

horizontal or precommunicating segment (PI)

Basilar artery

Anterior cerebral artery; postcommunicating segment (A2)

Anterior communicating artery _J

Middle cerebral artery; postbifurcation M1 segment

Anterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (Al)

Posterior communicating artery Internal carotid artery Basilar artery

Anterior cerebral artery; postcommunicating segment (A2)

Anterior communicating artery _J

Middle cerebral artery; postbifurcation M1 segment

Anterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (Al)

Posterior communicating artery Internal carotid artery Basilar artery

Middle cerebral artery: prebifurcation Ml segment

Middle cerebral artery: insular segment (M2)

Posterior cerebral artery: quadrigeminal segment (P3)

Posterior cerebral artery: ambient segment (P2)

Posterior cerebral artery:

horizontal or precommunicating segment (PI!

Temporal branches

Anterior cerebral artery; postcommunicating segment (A2)

Middle cerebral artery: prebifurcation Ml segment

Middle cerebral artery: postblfurcatlon M1 segment

Internal carotid artery

Posterior cerebral artery: horizontal or precommunicatlng segment (PI)

Basilar artery

Anterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (AT)

Posterior communicating artery

Posterior cerebral artery: quadrigeminal segment (P3)

Posterior cerebral artery: ambient segment (P2)

Temporal branches Superior cerebellar artery

Anterior cerebral artery; postcommunicating segment (A2)

Middle cerebral artery: postbifurcation M1 segment

Posterior communicating artery

Internal carotid artery

Basilar artery

Anterior cerebral artery; postcommunicating segment (A2)

Middle cerebral artery: postbifurcation M1 segment

Posterior communicating artery

Internal carotid artery

Basilar artery

Middle cerebral artery: cortical segment (M4)

Posterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (Pi;

Posterior cerebral artery: calcarine segment (P4)

Posterior cerebral artery: quadrigeminal segment (P3)

Temporal branches

Posterior cerebral artery: ambient segment (P2)

Superior cerebellar artery

Anterior cerebral artery: postcommunicating segment (A2)

Anterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (A1)

Internal carotid artery _

Posterior communicating artery

Posterior cerebral artery: horizontal or precommunicating segment (PI)

Superior cerebellar artery

Basilar artery

Anterior cerebral artery: postcommunicating segment (A2)

Anterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (A1)

Internal carotid artery _

Posterior communicating artery

Superior cerebellar artery

Basilar artery

Segments Mca Cta

Anterior communicating artery

Middle cerebral artery: preblfurcation Ml segment

- Middle cerebral artery (knee)

Middle cerebral artery: postbifurcation Ml segment

Posterior cerebral artery: ambient segment (P2)

Temporal branches

N Posterior cerebral artery: calca rine segment (P4)

Anterior communicating artery

Middle cerebral artery: preblfurcation Ml segment

- Middle cerebral artery (knee)

Middle cerebral artery: postbifurcation Ml segment

Posterior cerebral artery: ambient segment (P2)

Temporal branches

N Posterior cerebral artery: calca rine segment (P4)

Anterior cerebral artery; postcom mein ¡eating segment (A2)

Posterior cerebral artery: ambient segment (P2)

Posterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (PI)

Middle cerebral artery: postbifurcatlon Ml segment

Anterior temporal artery

Posterior cerebral artery: quadrigetninal segment (P3)

Middle cerebral artery: insular segment (M2)

Middle cerebral artery: pre bifurcation Ml segment

Anterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (Al)

internal carotid artery

Anterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (A2)

Middle cerebral artery: insular segment (M2) \

Middle cerebral artery (knee) x

Middle cerebral artery; post bifurcation Ml segment

Anterior cerebral artery: postcommunicating segment (Al)

Anterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (A2)

Middle cerebral artery: insular segment (M2) \

Middle cerebral artery (knee) x

Middle cerebral artery; post bifurcation Ml segment

Anterior cerebral artery: postcommunicating segment (Al)

Posterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (PI)

Posterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (PI)

An tero-inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)

Posterior cerebral artery: quadrigeminal segment (P3:

Posterior cerebral artery: ambient segment (P2)

Middle cerebral artery: pre bifurcation Ml segment

Superior cerebellar artery

Internal carotid artery

Middle cerebral artery: ^ insular segment (M2)

Middle cerebral artery (knee)

Middle cerebral artery: pos (communicating Ml segment

Middle cerebral artery: precommunicating M1 segment

Internal carotid artery

Antero-inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)

Middle cerebral artery: ^ insular segment (M2)

Middle cerebral artery (knee)

Middle cerebral artery: pos (communicating Ml segment

Middle cerebral artery: precommunicating M1 segment

Internal carotid artery

Antero-inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)

Cerebral Artery Anatomy

Anterior cerebral artery: postcommunicating segment (A2)

Anterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (Al)

Posterior cerebral artery: quadrigemlnal segment (P3)

Posterior cerebral artery: ambient segment (P2)

Posterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (PI)

Superior cerebellar artery (SCA)

Basilar artery

Anterior cerebral artery: postcommunicating segment (A2)

Anterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (Al)

Posterior cerebral artery: quadrigemlnal segment (P3)

Posterior cerebral artery: ambient segment (P2)

Posterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (PI)

Superior cerebellar artery (SCA)

Basilar artery

Anterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (A1)

Middle cerebral artery: prebifurcatlon M1 segment

Middle cerebral artery: postbifurcatlon Ml segment

Middle cerebral artery: insular segment (M2)

Internal carotid artery

Posterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (PI)

Superior cerebellar artery

Antero-inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)

Anterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (A1)

Middle cerebral artery: prebifurcatlon M1 segment

Middle cerebral artery: postbifurcatlon Ml segment

Middle cerebral artery: insular segment (M2)

Internal carotid artery

Posterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (PI)

Superior cerebellar artery

Antero-inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)

Posterior Cerebral Artery

Anterior cerebral artery: postcommunicating segment (A2J

- Anterior temporal artery

Posterior cerebral artery: ambient segment (P2)

- Basilar artery

Posterior cerebral artery: quadrigeminal segment (P3)

Temporal branches

Anterior cerebral artery: postcommunicating segment (A2J

- Anterior temporal artery

Posterior cerebral artery: ambient segment (P2)

- Basilar artery

Posterior cerebral artery: quadrigeminal segment (P3)

Temporal branches

Vertebrobasilar Syite

Calcarme artery

Posterior cerebral artery: calcarine segment (P4)

Posterior cerebral artery: quadrigeminal segment (P3)

Inferior temporal arteries

Posterior cerebral artery: ambient segment (P2)

Cerebellar branches of the SCA

Basilar artery

Vertebrobasilar Syite

Calcarme artery

Posterior cerebral artery: calcarine segment (P4)

Posterior cerebral artery: quadrigeminal segment (P3)

Inferior temporal arteries

Posterior cerebral artery: ambient segment (P2)

Cerebellar branches of the SCA

Basilar artery

Parieto-occipital artery

Superior vermian branch of SCA

Posterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (PI)

Superior cerebellar artery (SCA)

Anteroinferior cerebellar artery (AICA)

Pos tero-inferí or cerebellar artery (PICA)

Left vertebral artery

Vertebrobasilar System

Vertebrobasilar System

Parietooccipital artery --

Calcarine artery

Posterior cerebral artery: calcarine segment (P4)

Posterior cerebral artery: quadrigeminal segment (P3)

Inferior temporal arteries

Posterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (PI)

Basilar artery

Antero-inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)

Parietooccipital artery --

Calcarine artery

Posterior cerebral artery: calcarine segment (P4)

Posterior cerebral artery: quadrigeminal segment (P3)

Inferior temporal arteries

Posterior cerebral artery: precommunicating segment (PI)

Basilar artery

Antero-inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)

Thalamoperforaring arteries

Posterior cerebral artery: ambient segment (P2)

Posterior temporal artery

Superior cerebellar artery (SCA)

Postero-inferlor cerebellar artery [PICA)

Vertebral artery: intradural segment (V4)

Vertebral artery (V3 segment)

Vertebral artery: foramlnal segment (V2)

Vertebrobasilar System

Lateral-posterior choroidal arteries Medial-posterior choroidal arteries Posterior thalamoperforating arteries

Anterior thalamoperforating arteries Posterios temporal branches

Basilar artery

Superior cerebellar artery (SCA) A ntero-inferior cere be liar artery (AICA) — Anterior and lateral segments of PICA Vertebral artery

Segment Vertebral Artery

Splenial branches (posterior pericallosal artery)

Parieto occipital artery

Superior vermian branches of SCA

Calcarine artery

Supratonsillar segment of PICA

Posterior medullar segment of PICA

Hemispheric branches of PICA

Splenial branches (posterior pericallosal artery)

Parieto occipital artery

Superior vermian branches of SCA

Calcarine artery

Supratonsillar segment of PICA

Posterior medullar segment of PICA

Hemispheric branches of PICA

Caudal"loop"of PICA

Anterior cerebral artery Middle cerebral artery Posterior cerebral artery Antero-inferior cerebellar artery Postero-inferior cerebellar artery Superior cerebellar artery

Anterior cerebral artery Middle cerebral artery Posterior cerebral artery Antero-inferior cerebellar artery Postero-inferior cerebellar artery

Superior cerebellar artery

Anterior choroidal and anterior thalamoperforating arteries

Anterior cerebral artery

Middle cerebral artery

Posterior cerebral artery

Anteroinferior cerebellar artery

Postero-inferior cerebellar artery

Superior cerebellar artery

Anterior choroidal and anterior thalamoperforating arteries

Lateral lenticulostriate branches (from middle cerebral artery)

Anterior cerebral artery Posterior cerebral artery Anteroinferior cerebellar artery Postero-inferior cerebellar artery Superior cerebellar artery

Anterior choroidal and anterior thalamoperforating arteries

Lenticulostriate branches (from middle cerebral artery)

Medial lenticulostriate and callosal perforating arteries

(from anterior cerebral artery)

Posterior choroidal and posterior thalamoperforating arteries

Anterior cerebral artery

Posterior cerebral artery

Postero-inferior cerebellar artery

Superior cerebellar artery

Lenticulostriatebranches [from middle cerebral artery)

Media! lenticulostriate and callosal perforating arteries

(from anterior cerebral artery)

Posterior choroidal and posterior thalamoperforating arteries

Perforating branches of basilar artery

324 6 Vascular Anatomy

Anterior cerebral artery

Posterior cerebral artery

Postero-inferior cerebellar artery

Superior cerebellar artery

Medial lenticulostriate and callosal perforating arteries

(from anterior cerebral artery)

Posterior choroidal and posterior thalamoperforating arteries (from posterior cerebral artery)

Perforating branches of basilar artery

Anterior cerebral artery

Middle cerebral artery

Medial lenticulostriate arteries and callosal perforating arteries (from anterior cerebral artery)

Lateral lenticulostriate branches (from middle cerebral artery)

Anterior choroidal and anterior thalamoperforating arteries

Anterior cerebral artery Middle cerebral artery

Medial Ienticulostriate arteries and callosal perforating arteries (from anterior cerebral artery)

Lateral lenticulostrlate branches (from middle cerebral artery)

Anterior choroidal and anterior thalamoperforating arteries

Anterior cerebral artery

Middle cerebral artery

Medial lenticulostriate and callosal perforating arteries

(from anterior cerebral artery)

Lateral lenticulostriate branches (from middle cerebral artery)

Anterior choroidal and anterior thalamoperforating arteries

Posterior choroidal and posterior thalamoperforating arteries (from posterior cerebral artery)

Perforating branches of the basilar artery

Anterior cerebral artery Middle cerebral artery

Medial lenticulostriate and callosal perforating arteries

(from middle cerebral artery)

Anterior choroidal and anterior thalamoperforating arteries

Posterior choroidal and posterior thalamoperforating arteries (from posterior cerebral artery)

Perforating branches of the basilar artery

Anteroinferior cerebellar artery Postero-lnferior cerebellar artery

Perforating branches of the vertebral artery

Bilobed Flap Markings

^^ Middle cerebral artery ^^ Posterior cerebral artery

Antero-inferior cerebellar artery Postero-inferior cerebellar artery ^^ Superior cerebral artery

Hypothyroidism Brain Model

Middle cerebral artery Posterior cerebral artery Antero-inferior cerebellar artery Postero-inferior cerebellar artery

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Responses

  • macy
    What is the branch of the basilar artery?
    11 months ago
  • Martina Roth
    What artery branches from basilar artery?
    7 months ago
  • primula
    What artery branches off basilar artery and supplies midbrain?
    2 months ago
  • domenica
    What is m2 artery brain?
    2 months ago
  • adaldrida
    What does the basilar and vertebral arteries supply in the brain?
    13 days ago

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