Skull Base Foramina

The skull base is crossed by several foramina. The following is a list of them and their contents:

- foramen caecum: emissary vein to superior sagittal sinus

- foramina of cribriform plate: olfactory nerve bundles

- posterior ethmoidal foramen: posterior ethmoidal artery, vein and nerve

- optic canal: optic nerve [II], ophthalmic artery

- superior orbital fissure: oculomotor nerve [III] trochlear nerve [IV]

lacrimal, frontal and nasociliary branches of ophthalmic nerve [VI]

abducens nerve [VI]

superior ophthalmic vein foramen rotundum: maxillary nerve [V2]

foramen ovale:

mandibular nerve [V3]

accessory meningeal artery lesser petrosal nerve (occasionally)

foramen spinosum:

middle meningeal artery and vein meningeal branch of mandibular nerve foramen lacerum:

internal carotid artery internal carotid nerve plexus canal of lesser petrosal nerve canal of greater petrosal nerve internal acoustic canal:

facial nerve [VII]

vestibulocochlear nerve [VIII]

labyrinthine artery jugular foramen:

inferior petrosal sinus glossopharyngeal nerve [IX]

vagus nerve [X]

accessory nerve [XI]

sigmoid sinus posterior meningeal artery internal jugular vein hypoglossal canal: hypoglossal nerve [XII] foramen magnum: medulla oblongata vertebral arteries meningeal branches of vertebral arteries spinal roots of accessory nerves.

Lesser wing of sphenoid bone Innominate line

Orbital border

Ethmoidal cells orethmoidal labyrinth

Foramen rotundum \ Mandibular condyle

Mastoid process ^

Odontoid process of axis

Vertical ramus of mandible -*""' Atlanto-axial joint-Horizontal ramus of mandible —

Sagittal suture

Frontal sinus

Superior border of petrous pyramid

Nasal septum

Atl an to-occipital joint

Lateral mass of atlas

Axis (body)

Angle of mandible

Sagittal suture

Frontal sinus

Superior border of petrous pyramid

Nasal septum

Atl an to-occipital joint

Lateral mass of atlas

Axis (body)

Angle of mandible

Frontal sinus interior clinoid process

Sphenoidal sinus

Floor of sella turcica

Anterior nasal spine

Hard palate

Frontal sinus interior clinoid process

Sphenoidal sinus

Floor of sella turcica

Anterior nasal spine

Hard palate

Outer table Diploe Inner table

Vasal imprints

Lambdoid suture

External occipital protuberance

Posterior clinoid process

Frontal sinus

Nasal bones

Malar bone

Anterior nasal spine

Alveolar processes

Mandible

- Sphenoethmoidal planum

Maxillary sinus — Hard palate

H/oid bone

Sagittal suture

Superior orbital border (roof of the orbit]

Fronto-zygomatic suture

Orbital floor

Zygomatic bone (body)

Maxillary sinus

Petrous pyramid of temporal bone Occipital foramen

Angle of mandible

Frontal sinus Ethmoidal cells

Frontal sinus Ethmoidal cells

- Foramen rotundur

Superior margin of petrous pyramic

Odontoid process of axis

- Foramen rotundur

Superior margin of petrous pyramic

Odontoid process of axis

Mastoid process

Vertical ramus of mandible

Spinous process of axis Angle of mandible

Horizontal ramus of mandible

Mastoid process

Vertical ramus of mandible

Spinous process of axis Angle of mandible

Horizontal ramus of mandible

Odontoid process of axis

Peduncle and lateral mass of atlas

Atlanto-axial articular space

Lateral mass of axis

Lower border of the posterior arch of atlas

Bregma

Pterion

Glabella

Anterior nasal spine

External acoustic meatus

Gonion

Bregma

Pterion

Glabella

Anterior nasal spine

External acoustic meatus

Gonion

Lambda

Aster ion

Porion

Inion or external occipital protuberance

Na si on

Anterior nasal spine -

Anterior nasal spine -

Pogonion

Gnation

10 1 Surface Anatomy

Orbitomeatal line

Superior horizontal line

Frankfurt plane

Auricular vertical line

Orbitomeatal line

Frankfurt plane

Superior horizontal line

Auricular vertical line

Frontal bone Sphenoid bone Parietal bone Lacrimal bone Ethmoid bone Nasal bones Temporal bone Zygomatic bone Maxillary bone Mandible

Orbital process of the palatine bone

Frontal bone

Sphenoid bone

Parietal bone

Lacrimal bone

Ethmoid bone

Nasal bones

Temporal bone

Zygomatic bone

Maxillary bone

Mandible

Frontal bone Sphenoid bone Parietal bone Lacrimal bone Ethmoid bone Occipital bone Nasal bones Temporal bone Zygomatic bone Maxillary bone Mandible

1 Surface Anatomy

Parietal bone Temporal bone Zygomatic bone Occipital bone Mandible

Frontal bone Sphenoid bone Parietal bone Palatine bone Ethmoid bone Nasal bones Vomer bone Occipital bone Maxillary bone Mandible Temporal bone

^^ Frontal bone ^^ Sphenoid bone Parietal bone Ethmoid bone ^^ Temporal bone ^^ Occipital bone

Frontal bone Sphenoid bone Parietal bone Ethmoid bone Temporal bone Occipital bone

Sagittal suture

Frontal protuberances

Coronal suture

Maxillo-nasa! suture

Fronto-zygomatic suture

Maxillo-lacrirna! suture

Frontal process of maxillary bone

Alveolar process of maxillary bone

Vertical ramus of mandible

Mental protuberance

Sagittal suture

Frontal protuberances

Coronal suture

Maxillo-nasa! suture

Fronto-zygomatic suture

Maxillo-lacrirna! suture

Frontal process of maxillary bone

Alveolar process of maxillary bone

Vertical ramus of mandible

Mental protuberance

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