Hypoglossal Nerve XII Cranial Nerve

The nucleus of the hypoglossal nerve is located in the dorsal region of the medulla, from the lower edge up to half the tegmen of the fourth ventricle.

The general somatic efferent (GSE) roots emerge from the nucleus ventrally, move forward and outside, and along the lateral margin of the medial longitudinal fasciculus and the medial lemniscus and cross the medial parts of the inferior olive complex. They eventually exit at the level of the anterolateral sulcus of the bulb (preolivary sulcus), between the pyramid and the bulbar olive.

They innervate the intrinsic tongue muscles, the genioglossus, hyoglossus and styloglossus muscles.

The nucleus of the hypoglossal nerve receives collaterals from the descending root of the trigeminal nerve.

Hypoglossal nucleus

Dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve

Spinal nucleus of accessory nerve

Sallvatory nucleus

Ambiguous nucleus

Glossopharyngeal nucleus

Sallvatory nucleus

Ambiguous nucleus

Glossopharyngeal nucleus

Pyramis

Olive IX, X, XI cc.nn. Fossetta lateralis Foramen of Luschka Foramen of Magendie

Jugular Foramen

Accessory nerve Vagus nerve Glossopharyngeal nerve

Jugular Foramen

Accessory nerve Vagus nerve Glossopharyngeal nerve

Hypoglossal nerve (XII c.n.) and hypoglossal canal Hypoglossal Canal

Hypoglossal nerve (XII c.n.) and hypoglossal canal Hypoglossal Canal

5 Functional Systems

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