Fig. 1. Polyamine pathways. Ornithine decarboxylase, the first enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, converts ornithine to putrescine. Enzymes for the forward conversion of polyamines include S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, spermidine synthase, and spermine synthase. Enzymes involved in back conversion from higher-to-lower order polyamines include acetyl CoA:Spd/Spm A-acetyl-transferase, polyamine oxidase, and spermine oxidase. AdoMet, S-adenosylmethionine; dc-AdoMet, decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine; A-Ac, A-acetylated; ODC, ornithine decarboxylase; PAO, polyamine oxidase; Putr, putrescine; SAMDC, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase; SMO, spermine oxidase; Spd, spermidine; Spm, spermine; SSAT, acetyl CoA:Spd/Spm A-acetyltransferase.

A1-acetyltransferase (SSAT), a component of the back conversion of polyamines is localized to the distal tubules, suggesting a differential localization of polyamine synthesis and degradation along the nephron segments (3).

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