Two routes are commonly used:
• internal jugular veins
• subclavian veins.
For routine placement, the preferred site is the subclavian vein (EPIC Project 2001) but during resuscitation, the internal jugular vein is often preferred (Polderman & Girbes 2002). In most cases the Seldinger technique is used (Hinds & Watson 1996):
• the vein is punctured with a needle and syringe;
• a wire is passed through the needle into the vein;
• the needle is withdrawn;
• the cannula is passed over the wire into the vein;
• the wire is removed, leaving the cannula in the vein.
Early complications of the procedure include injury during insertion, pneumothorax and air embolus (Woodrow 2002).
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