Although there are many reasons cited for excluding family members from the resuscitation of a patient, most are based on speculation and paternalistic attitudes rather than evidence from research (Albarran & Stafford 1999).
• Family members will physically interfere with treatments and require restraining.
• The incidence of legal actions taken against healthcare professionals will increase.
• Allowing family members to witness the resuscitation is a breach of the patient's confidentiality.
• The presence of family members will affect staff performance.
• The psychological consequences of family presence during CPR are unknown.
• There is insufficient evidence to endorse wholesale change in practice.
• Conflicting attitudes of nursing and medical staff.
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