External considerations

• Petrochemicals or inflammable spirits or fumes can ignite with a spark so remove casualty to a safe area, if necessary.

• Oxygen may need to be removed or switched off temporarily during defibrillation (Liddle et al. 2003) unless it is being delivered by a closed system.

• If the casualty is lying on a wet floor, covered in blood or soaked in rain, they should be removed to a safe and dry area.

The chest should be dried of any form of fluid that may conduct a shock.

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