□ The universal algorithm provides a sequence of actions for the management of all people who appear in cardiac arrest, namely those who are unconscious, unresponsive, without signs of life.
□ Cardiac arrest may present as a 'shockable' rhythm, such as ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT), or a 'non-shockable' rhythm, such as asystole or pulseless electrical activity (PEA).
□ The chance of successful defibrillation declines with each minute that VF persists. The first shock should be delivered as soon as possible if the rhythm is VF/VT.
□ The outcome for 'non-shockable' rhythms is poor. The team must rapidly consider and effectively treat the potentially reversible causes.
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