Cat Spraying What You Can Do

Cat Spray No More

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Cat Spray No More Summary


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Fig. 29 shows the evolution in time of 2.03 signal in frozen liver, kidney and blood from rats which were injected intraperitoneally with DNIC-cysteine 125 . The lineshape of the 2.03 signal from liver, kidney or blood as recorded 6 h after the injection of Cys-DNIC with 56Fe or 57Fe resembled that of the DNICs from the same organs extracted from rats maintained on drinking water with nitrite and iron (Fig. 30) 125 . This coincidence was also found in different species like rats, cats, guinea pigs, rabbits, mice and hamsters 125 . The lineshape remained unchanged upon thawing the samples to room temperature and proved that the DNICs were bound to protein.

Interspecies differences in structure

The variation in relative dimension of the large intestine is largely correlated with diet. In herbivores, such as horses and rabbits, which depend largely on microbial fermentation for nutrition, the large intestine is very large and complex. Omnivores like pigs and humans have a substantial but smaller large intestine. Carnivores such as dogs and cats have a small and simple large intestine. The structure and function of the caecum varies in many animals. Vertebrates such as rabbits and horses, which live on a diet composed only of plant life, have a larger caecum that is an important organ of absorption, since it contains bacteria that help digest cellulose. Animals that eat only meat have a reduced or absent caecum. In cats and dogs, muscle contractions of the caecum are much more vigorous and are reversible. Materials already passed to the next region of the large intestine can be brought back to the caecum for mixing with new food substances.

Helminthic infections

Ankylostoma duodenale (unlike Necator americanus) may also be contracted by the faeco-oral route. The hookworms of cats and dogs, Ankylostoma braziliense and A. caninum, fail to achieve full maturity in humans but may cause a serpiginous skin rash -cutaneous larva migrans.

Nervous and humoral control

The central nervous system (CNS) modifies many functions of the gastrointestinal tract. In cats, stimulation of the cerebrum, midbrain and hypothalamus increases colonic motility. The colon appears to receive impulses from the CNS and upper gastrointestinal tract via the spinal cord. This is supported by the association of thoracic spinal cord injury with intractable constipation6. If the proximal region of the colon is distended, contraction distally is inhibited by impulses passing along intermesenteric neurons between pre- and para- vertebral ganglia and then via splanchnic or lumbar colonic nerves. With extrinsic regulation the parasympathetic neurons appear to be excitatory and the sympathetics inhibitory in the musculature of the colon.

Operant Conditioning

Operant conditioning (also called instrumental conditioning) involves the regulation of voluntary behavior by its consequences. Thorndike first sys-temically studied operant conditioning in the late 1800's. He placed cats in puzzle boxes and measured the amount of time they took to escape to a waiting bowl of food. He found that with increasing experience, the cats escaped more quickly. Movements that resulted in being released from the box, such

Description Of The Organism

Eggs are yellow-brown, contain yolk cells and a flat operculum, and measure approximately 80 x 50 After developing for approximately 3 weeks, the eggs are passed into the environment from the lungs via the sputum or are swallowed and excreted in the feces. The eggs hatch into miracidia, which then infect fresh water snails, the first intermediate host. Several snails can serve this function, including the families Thiaridae, Pleuroceridae and Hydrobiidae (Malek, 1980). Semisulcospira libertina is one of the more common vectors for P. westermani. Within the snail, the miracidia develop into sporocysts, rediae and then cercariae (100 x 270 which are either secreted into the water or ingested by freshwater crabs or crayfish that are often found in streams. At least 21 species can serve as this second intermediate host including the genus Potamon (Nana and Bovornkitti, 1991). The encysted metacercariae (0.4 x 0.4 mm) mature in the gills and muscles over 42-106 days (Yokogawa et al.,...

Role in Learning and Memory

One of the most widely studied classical conditioning procedures is classical eyelid conditioning. This reflex conditioning procedure has been studied in a variety of species, including rabbits, rats, cats, dogs, and humans. Mostly because of the research efforts of Isadore Gormezano and his colleagues, which began in the early 1960's, much is known about behavioral aspects of classical eyelid conditioning in rabbits. In this paradigm, a mild electric shock or air puff is presented to elicit reliably a reflexive blink from the rabbit. The blink is typically measured by means of devices that are at

Identifying The Individual

Figure 10.9 (A) The flow of rubbing between a group of four cats studied by Macdonald et al. (1987) was much less than that of grooming, and the two differed in that rubbing relationships tended to be highly asymmetric whereas grooming ones were symmetric. Furthermore, whereas the flow of grooming tended to mirror indices of association, those of rubbing and aggression did not, but the latter two were correlated with each other but not with grooming. (B) Superimposed on these patterns, relationships were modified by kinship and age for example, female 68 (in Kerby and Mac-donald's 1988 large colony) interacted more with her sisters than her adult daughters, and more with these 5 close kin than with the 12 other females available to her. Figure 10.9 (A) The flow of rubbing between a group of four cats studied by Macdonald et al. (1987) was much less than that of grooming, and the two differed in that rubbing relationships tended to be highly asymmetric whereas grooming ones were...

Adaptive Theory of Sleep

Several predictions have been generated from the adaptive theory, most of which have been supported by scientific observations. First, the theory predicts that predators such as large cats and bears, which obtain most of their nutrients in one large meal per day, would sleep much more than grazing animals such as cattle and horses, who must eat frequently to survive. A second prediction of the theory is that predators such as wolves and mountain lions, which have few natural enemies, would sleep more than prey such as rabbits and guinea pigs, which are at risk if they fail to maintain constant vigilance. Finally, animals such as bats, which are well protected by the environment in which they live, would sleep for relatively long periods of time. These predictions are documented by scientific observations, which provide support for the adaptive or evolutionary theory of sleep.

Echinococcus granulosus

The metacestode of E. multilocularis has been found on a number of occasions in extraintestinal sites in dogs and cats (Geisel et al., 1990 Deplazes et al., 1997a Losson and Coignoul, 1997). It is not known whether such infections resulted directly from the ingestion of eggs or indirectly by autoinfection as a result of a previously acquired worm burden, but they illustrate the unusual developmental potential of E. multilocularis.

Scope and future of the field

To date, neuronal plasticity in the visual system has been studied essentially in cats, ferrets and primates, but the mouse visual cortex has been largely neglected. Although the mouse is becoming the animal of choice in many disciplines, it has not been used that often for the study of sensory processing in the central nervous system. Mice are nocturnal animals and are believed to rely more on tactile information and olfactory cues and merely use their visual system as an event detector. However, the interest in mouse visual cortex has increased over the past few years and the study of plasticity in the mouse

Birth of a new discipline

In the late 1890s, at Clark University, Linus Kline and William S. Small began work that led to the first psychological studies of rats navigating mazes. Around the same time, at Harvard University, Edward L. Thorndike produced his classic thesis, Animal Intelligence An Experimental Study of the Associative Processes in Animals. Most of Thorndike's thesis dealt with learning in dogs, cats, and chicks. During this decade, then, the groundwork was laid for the kind of research on animal learning that would become so important in future decades.

Key issues in comparative psychology

Another critical issue in the early days of comparative psychology was deciding which species to study. Early comparative psychologists tended to study a wide range of animals. For example, Kline's course covered amebae, earthworms, slugs, fish, chicks, rats, and cats. By the 1920s, however, laboratory rats had become by far the most popular subjects. Fairly or not, comparative psychology earned a reputation as rat psychology. This reputation has proved hard to shake, despite the efforts of psychologists, including Yerkes, who extended their research to other species.

Animal learning as lab science

Ability to form new mental associations. He also described ingenious devices for studying animal learning and showed how they could be used in controlled research. For example, he constructed puzzle boxes for cats and then studied their behavior as they attempted to escape.

REM Sleep and Its Control by the Brainstem The REMDream Equation

Brainstem Ppt

The neurosurgeon and neurophysiologist Jouvet discovered muscle atonia of REM sleep in 1959 18 . The combination of REMs, activated EEG and muscle atonia suggested the term paradoxical sleep as a synonym of REM sleep. Jouvet also demonstrated that the generation of REM sleep depends on an intact pontine tegmentum 19 and that REM atonia is due to an inhibition of motor centers in the medulla oblongata. Cats with lesions around the locus pericoeruleus exhibit a variety of complex behaviors during REM sleep, including motor patterns suggesting attack, defense and exploration 20 .

Epidemiology And Ecology

Serological surveys demonstrate wide variation in prevalence of infection in various geographic locations (Zuber and Jacquier, 1995). In Paris, France, where rates of infection reach 90 by the fifth decade (Desmonts and Couvreur, 1974b Remington et al., 1995 Thulliez, 1992) transmission appears to be related to preferences of ingesting poorly cooked or raw meat, especially lamb. In contrast, antibody positivity in the UK and Finland is approximately 20 in the total population (Joynson, 1992 Koskiniemi et al., 1992). In moist tropical areas of Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa, where cats are abundant and the climate favors survival of oocysts, the prevalence may approach 90 (Etheredge and Frenkel, 1995 Frenkel et al., 1995 Onadeko et al., 1992 Sousa et al., 1988). In comparison, rates in hot, dry regions, such as North Africa, usually do not exceed 20 (Hamadto et al., 1997). Rates in the USA also vary, with a recent survey in military recruits showing rates from 3 in the mountain...

Development Of Protozoology

Protozoology Babes

This protozoan parasite, which they showed was infective to cats when given by mouth. At the commencement of the twentieth century, the role of E. histolytica in dysentery was far from clear however, in 1903 Leonard Rogers (1868-1962) published a paper from Calcutta, in which he described how the organism(s) spread from gut to liver via the portal veins. As late as 1909, however, Manson was not totally convinced that E. histolytica was the cause of 'tropical dysentery'.

Therapy And Management Of Toxoplasmosis

A live vaccine, based on a strain of T. gondii that does not persist in the tissues of vaccinated animals, is available in New Zealand, the UK and Europe, that prevents T. gondii abortion in sheep (Buxton and Innes, 1995). This may decrease the incidence of T. gondii infection among herds and eventually decrease the burden of infectious cysts in meat. Careful husbandry practices in swine, including cooking feed and excluding cats from farms, may decrease Toxoplasma levels in herds. A live vaccine using a mutant strain of T. gondii (T-263) is under development in the USA to reduce oocyst shedding by cats (Choromanski et al., 1995). It will not change the epidemiology of disease, but could be recommended to cat owners who are willing to pay to decrease the risk of transmission of toxoplasmosis from their pets. The possibility of a human vaccine is still remote. No drugs are available that can eradicate tissue cysts in animal tissues. Freezing to 12 C, cooking to an internal temperature...

Dracunculiasis guinea worm

Mode Transmission Dracunculiasis

Domestic and wild cats The normal hosts for Gnathostoma spinigerum are domestic and wild felines, dogs and foxes. Human infections have, however, been reported from Israel, the Sudan, India and the Far East. The majority of human cases to date have occurred in Thailand, where a substantial animal reservoir has been reported. The parasite has been isolated from cats, dogs, domestic pigs, freshwater fish, eels, snakes, frogs, leopards, chickens and fish-eating birds. One per cent of dogs in Bangkok is infected with gnathostomiasis. In Thailand, human infection usually results from eating fermented fish, which is a Thai delicacy much liked by women. The dish known as Somfak is made up of raw freshwater fish, cooked rice, curry, salt and pepper and then wrapped in banana leaves. Recently it has been shown experimentally that penetration of the skin by the third-stage infective larva can occur. encysted larvae. Ancylol (disophenol) kills both the larval and adult forms of gnathostoma in...

Reasons for Using Animal Subjects

Crossbreed Animal Drawings

Animals that have a similar lifestyle to humans are likely to have some of the same behaviors. Rats, for example, are social animals, as are humans cats are not. Rats also show similarity to humans in their eating behavior (which is one reason rats commonly live The third factor is situational similarity. Some animals, particularly domesticated animals such as dogs, cats, domestic rabbits, and some birds, adapt easily to experimental situations such as living in a cage and being handled by humans. Wild animals, even if reared from infancy, may not behave normally in experimental situations. The behavior of a chimpanzee that has been kept alone in a cage, for example, may tell something about the behavior of a human kept in solitary confinement, but it will not necessarily be relevant to understanding the behavior of most people in typical situations. the past century, it is now often the animal of choice so that comparisons can be made from study to...

Mammals Have Some Capacity for Lens Regeneration

Rabbits, cats, and mice can regenerate an imperfect lens if the lens is removed from the lens capsule, leaving the capsule behind (Gwon et al., 1990 Call et al., 2004). A new lens is formed by the proliferation and differentiation of residual lens epithelium cells that remain adherent to the lens capsule. Interestingly, in human cataract surgery to replace the lens with a plastic lens, the posterior, and part of the anterior, lens capsule is left behind to hold the artificial lens. Residual lens epithelial cells adhering to the anterior part of the capsule sometimes undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transformation and proliferate across the whole posterior lens surface, where they essentially form new cataracts, a process called posterior capsule opacification (PCO) (Wormstone et al., 2001). In these cases, the surgeon uses a laser to ablate the proliferating cells and the posterior capsule. PCO happens in other mammals as well, but is diminished considerably by 20 days...

Effects of Sensory and Motor Experience

There is an extensive literature showing that the structure of cortical neurons is influenced by various types of sensory and motor experience (for a review, see Kolb and Whishaw, 1998). For example, if laboratory animals ranging from rats to cats and monkeys are placed in complex environments versus living in standard lab cages, there are large changes in dendritic length and synapse number throughout the primary visual and somatosensory cortex (e.g. Greenough et al., 1985 Beaulieu and Colonnier, 1987). Similarly, if rats are trained on neuropsychological learning tasks such as a visual maze or a skilled motor learning task, then there are changes in cells in occipital cortex and motor cortex respectively (Greenough and Chang, 1988). These changes are specific, however, as visual training does not influence motor cortex neurons and visa versa.

Acquired Immune Deficiency

Malaria prophylaxis needs to be optimal, and standby treatment should be available in case of an unexpected breakthrough. Travel to multiresistant malaria fal-ciparum areas without adequate medical facilities should be discouraged. Antimosquito measures are self-evident. In case of fever with or without signs of respiratory tract infection, penicillin treatment (or a macrolide in the case of penicillin allergy) should be started promptly. A thick blood film to exclude malaria should be done without delay at the same time. After bites by dogs or cats immediate prophylactic antibiotic treatment must be initiated, with co-amoxiclav (7 days) or, in case of penicillin allergy, clindamycin (300 mg thrice daily for 7 days).

A Proximity to the nearest neighbour

Figure 10.6 Exploration of patterns of spatial proximity can reveal some unexpected structure to what appears superficially to be a random gathering. In the case of farm cats, these graphs, based on G. Kerby's field study in Macdonald et al. (in press), reveal (A) that different age-sex classes of individuals positioned themselves at significantly different distances to their nearest neighbors and (B) that these positionings differed significantly depending on the age-sex class to which that neighbor belonged. AF adult female, AM adult male, JF juvenile female, JM juvenile male, KF female kitten, KM male kitten. Figure 10.6 Exploration of patterns of spatial proximity can reveal some unexpected structure to what appears superficially to be a random gathering. In the case of farm cats, these graphs, based on G. Kerby's field study in Macdonald et al. (in press), reveal (A) that different age-sex classes of individuals positioned themselves at significantly different distances to their...

Case Studies and Therapy Techniques

In the second case, Steve R. was a high school junior who was referred by his father because of his refusal to attend school. Steve was described as a loner who avoided other people and suffered fears of storms, cats, and now, apparently, school. He was of above-average intelligence and was pressured by his father to excel academically and attend a prestigious college. Steve's mother was described as being shy, like Steve. Steve was her only child, and she doted on him, claiming she knew what it felt like to be in his situation.

Historical Context

If he rewarded the behavior of the cat, the behavior was repeated, if he did not, it would cease. He surmised that certain stimuli and responses become connected or dissociated from each other in the process of learning. This learning principle he termed the law of effect. Thorndike's early research served as the foundation for Skinner's work that was beginning in the latter years of Thorndike's career. Whereas Thorndike's goal was to get his cats to learn to obtain food by leaving the box, animals in Skinner's box learned to obtain food by operating on their environment within the box. Skinner became interested in specifying how behavior varied as a result of alterations in the environment.

Helicobacter pylori and Food Products

Route, or by the oral-oral route, e.g., kissing, vomitus. On occasion, transmission occurs from person to person via contaminated endoscopes. Other gastric Helicobacter-like organisms have now been observed in a variety of animals (11), including rodents, primates, swine, and ferrets, but, with the exception of primates and possibly cats, these isolates are clearly different from human isolates (12). Foodborne transmission would not be unusual.

Laboratory Diagnosis In Humans

PCR-based methods were used to detect ascarid larvae from animal tissues including cats, dogs and foxes, and species differentiation between T. canis, T. cati and Toxascaris leonina was possible (Jacobs et al., 1997). These methods may prove to be good candidates for further development for the detection and or identification of ascarid larvae in human tissues.

Anatomy Of The Frontal Lobes

Many have argued that what makes humans of greater intelligence than other animals is our highly-developed PFC. The frontal lobes comprise approximately 30 of brain volume in humans (Goldman-Rakic, 1987 Fuster, 1997). They are proportionally largest in humans, smaller in other primates and smaller in other mammals. For example, the PFC accounts for 17 of cortical volume in chimpanzees, and 7 in dogs, and 3.5 in cats (Fuster, 1997). The frontal lobes continue to develop relatively late in life, completing development in adolescence or early adulthood (Yakovlev and Lecours, 1967 Thatcher et al., 1987 Anokhin et al., 1996). They are also the first to begin their decline, roughly in the third decade of life prefrontal volume loss correlates negatively with age in range of r -.50 (Raz, 2000).

Introduction Pfc Function

In the introduction of one of the oldest experimental studies on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), four functions are stated to ' have been assigned to the frontal lobes - movement, inhibition, attention and association' (Franz, 1907). After reporting on his experiments in cats and monkeys, Franz concludes that ' the frontal lobes are concerned in normal and daily associational processes and that through them we are enabled to form habits

Brain Studies

Another series of experiments that illustrates the role of animal models in the study of brain and behavior is that developed by David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel, who study visual perception (mostly using cats). Hubel and Wiesel were able to study the activity of individual cells in the living brain. By inserting a microelectrode into a brain cell of an immobilized animal and

Fear Conditioning

Much of what is known about the role of the amygdala in emotional processing comes from studies using Pavlovian (or classical aversive) conditioning. Also known as fear conditioning, it is a simple form of associative learning that supports the acquisition of emotional information. Simply stated, fear conditioning is a procedure by which a subject (human or animal) initially shows weak or no responses to a conditioned stimulus (CS e.g., a tone), but a measurable unconditioned response (UR e.g., freezing) to an unconditioned stimulus (US e.g., mild electric shock). After repeated pairings of the CS with the US, an association between the US and the CS is formed, and the individual shows the conditioned response (CR) to the CS alone. Conditioned fear stimuli trigger many of the same behaviors that innate fear stimuli do. For example, rats will freeze in response to either cats or to sounds that have been paired with shock 29 . The fear response can be quantified by different behavioral...

Other Approaches

Tor, hydrophobic, positively or negatively charged, other), and the distribution of pharmacophoric pairs is described with respect to pairwise distances (e.g., three instances of a donor-acceptor pair separated by five bonds). Topological torsion descriptors are the 2D analog of the torsion angle since they are computed from linear sequences of four consecutively bonded heavy atoms. The topological correlation of generalized atom types is also the conceptual basis of the program CATS (43) that generates molecular size-independent phar-macophore descriptors.

Consumer Choice

A lack of involvement in the planning process might also cause problems later on due to incomplete information. For example, a person who likes animals and has some clerical and medical education might not be a good candidate for working in a veterinary hospital if he or she is highly allergic to cats.


Labor-intensive counts, which are likely to produce small samples, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, more rapid, possibly less accurate counts, that can, however, produce relatively large samples. The more that is known about the variability of the populations, and this includes the populations of the objects in terms of their sizes, shapes and distributions, as well as the populations of organisms, people, cats, mice etc. being studied, the clearer will be the choice as to methods and necessary sample sizes. No counting method is entirely free of assumptions in all of its applications. Given the danger that the term 'assumption-free', when applied to a quantitative method, will lead to a false sense of security about the reliability of the results and their interpretation, it may be best for the term to be avoided altogether and replaced by a thoughtful and complete account of the tissues that have been used, and the methods employed to avoid a biased result.

Viral infections

Rabies is a zoonotic infection of mammals, especially wild carnivores in the forest (foxes, wolves, jackals). The urban reservoir includes stray and pet dogs, cats and other domestic mammals, and in a part of South America, vampire bats play an important role in spreading infection to fruit bats, cattle and other animals, including man.

Clinical features

In urban areas, the problem is best tackled by the control of dogs stray dogs should be impounded and destroyed if unclaimed. Pet dogs, and preferably also cats, should be vaccinated every 3 years. In rabies-free areas, the importing of dogs, cats and other mammalian pets should be strictly controlled, such animals being kept in quarantine for at least 6 months. Whenever a dog is found to be rabid, other animals that have been exposed to it should be traced so that they can be vaccinated, kept under observation or destroyed. Some w&f rn'r.aiopeai. countries have used oral vaccination campaign


Operant conditioning, also called instrumental conditioning, involves the regulation of nonreflexive behavior by its consequences. American psychologist Edward Thorndike was a pioneer in the study of operant conditioning, publishing his work about cats escaping from puzzle boxes in 1898. Thorndike observed that over successive trials, movements that released a latch, allowing the animal to get out of the box and get some food, became more frequent. Movements not resulting in escape became less frequent. Thorndike called this the Law of Effect responses followed by satisfaction would be strengthened, while responses followed by discomfort would be weakened. The study of operant conditioning was greatly extended by American behaviorist B. F. Skinner, starting in the 1930's.

Learned Helplessness

Cape, later could not learn to escape shocks in a shuttle box in which they had only to jump to the other side. Disturbingly, they would lie down and whimper, not even trying to get away from the completely avoidable shocks. Dogs that had not been exposed to the uncontrollable shocks learned to escape in the shuttle box rapidly. More important, dogs exposed to the same number and pattern of shocks, but with the ability to turn them off, also had no trouble learning to escape in the shuttle box. In other words, it was the exposure to uncontrollable shocks, not just shocks, that produced the later deficit in escape learning. Moreover, the dogs that had been exposed to uncontrollable aversive events also had difficulties learning other, unrelated, tasks. This basic result has since been found many times with many different types of situations, species, and types of aversive events. For example, learned helplessness has been shown to occur in dogs, cats, mice, rats, ger-bils, goldfish,...


Primary visual cortex has a similar laminar distribution of alpha1, beta1, and beta2 subunits with high densities of receptors in superficial layers, low densities in the middle layers and intermediate densities in the infragranular layers. This overall distribution pattern is seen in the cat (Aoki et al., 1986 Parkinson et al., 1988a Jia et al., 1994), the New World common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) (Gebhard et al., 1993), and the Old World rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) (Bigham and Lidow, 1995). The alpha2 receptor shows a different distribution in cats alpha2 receptor density is lowest in layer VI (Jia et al., 1994), and in one study this receptor was only observed in a single band occupying layers II and III (Parkinson et al., 1988a). The laminar distribution pattern of NA fibers in the cat visual cortex resembles that of beta-adrenergic receptors, and differs from the distribution pattern of alpha-adrenergic receptors (Liu and Cynader, 1994), suggesting that beta-receptors are...


The D2 receptor is also distributed throughout the cerebral cortex of rats, cats, and monkeys, and is more homogeneous in regional distribution and laminar pattern than the D1 receptor (Richfield et al., 1989). D2 receptors are found in all cortical layers of the rhesus monkey, with the highest density of binding found in layer V (Lidow et al., 1991). However, D2 receptor concentrations decrease in the cortex along a rostro-caudal gradient, so that lowest levels are found in the occipital cortex of monkeys and, to a lesser extent, rats (Lidow et al., 1989c Lidow et al., 1990 Lidow et al., 1991 Goldman-Rakic et al., 1992). In addition, D2 receptors are less common than D1 receptors in primate cortex (Goldman-Rakic et al., 1992).

Visual Impairment

The sequelae of strabismus include amblyopia (i.e., suppression of the visual input to the cortex) and a loss of binocular vision. Amblyopia has been found to occur in 1 to 4 percent of the general population, 2.5 percent of preterm infants without ROP, 12 percent of children with ROP, and 20 percent of children with severe ROP (Cats and Tan, 1989 Repka et al., 1998). The rate of the absence of stereopsis was higher in 7-year-olds born at less than 32 weeks of gestation than in controls born at full term (16.5 and 3.8 percent, respectively) (Cooke et al., 2004). Optic nerve atrophy and cortical visual impairment can also influence visual acuity in preterm children (Repka, 2002).


Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular coccidian parasite found throughout the world. Infection is spread through the ingestion of oocysts in undercooked meat, by exposure through handling cat litter, or by consumption of foodstuffs contaminated with oocysts. The most important factor is eating raw or undercooked meat. Cats excrete up to 10 million oocysts a day for up to 2 weeks postinfection. Oocysts become infective 1-5 days after excretion, are spread by surface water and can survive for more than 1 year. Thus contact with soil and water and eating undercooked meat are greater risk factors than exposure to cats.


Dendritic and axonal sprouting has also been associated with MAP2 and GAP-43 expression respectively. MAP2 immunoreactivity has been considered a good marker for dendrites based on experimental evidence that correlates dendritic growth with an increase in MAP2 immunoreactivity (Philpot et al., 1997 Sanchez et al., 2000 Bury and Jones, 2002). At every time point studied, the LPZ in area 17 of retinal lesion cats displayed a modified MAP2 immunolabeling (Obata et al., 1999). The MAP2 upregulation therefore suggests dendritic sprouting as a possible mechanism by which cortical reorganization occurs (Zepeda et al., 2004). GAP43 is mainly present in growth cones. Its expression after injury has been correlated with axonal regeneration (Baekelandt et al., 1994 Stroemer et al., 1995). Nevertheless axonal sprouting does not solely depend on GAP43 levels (Szele et al., 1995). The absence of modulation of GAP43 immunoreactivity cannot rule out that axonal sprouting takes place at some point in...

Early life

Yerkes was born on May 26, 1876, in Breadysville, Pennsylvania. He was the oldest child of Silas Marshall Yerkes and Susanna Addis Carrell Yerkes. Growing up on a farm, he developed a lasting interest in the domesticated and wild animals that were all around him cows, horses, mules, sheep, hogs, chickens, turkeys, ducks, pigeons, rabbits, dogs, cats, rats, mice, snakes. The bond Yerkes probably felt such a strong bond with these creatures in part because of his lack of human playmates. His sister, born four years after Yerkes, had died at the age of three from scarlet fever. His other sister and two brothers were even younger, so Yerkes spent much of his time playing alone.

E multilocularis

Prevention of human infection with MAE in regions where E. multilocularis is perpetuated in wild animal cycles is dependent on personal preventive measures, particularly avoiding foxes and other potentially infected definitive hosts. It is also important to try to prevent infection from sylvatic cycles becoming established in domestic pets, and thus domestic dogs and cats must be well controlled in such endemic areas. A more recent approach to controlling the transmission of E. multilocularis in wild animal cycles is to deliver cestocidal drugs, such as praziquantel, in baits (Schantz et al., 1995). Recent trials in southern Germany using bait pellets each containing 50 mg praziquantel have shown a reduction in prevalence in foxes from 32 to 4 after six baiting campaigns over a period of 14 months (Schelling et al., 1997). However, the long-term efficacy of this control strategy has still to be determined.

The Columbia School

Thorndike represented a bridge from functionalism to behaviorism, a new school of thought that was led by John Broadus Watson (1878-1958) and emerged around 1913. Thorndike was notable for his use ofnonhuman subjects, a position consistent with Darwin's emphasis on the continuity among organisms. He is also famous for his puzzle box research with cats, which led to his Law of Effect, which states that when an association is followed by a satisfying state of affairs, that association is strengthened. This early operant conditioning research was later expanded on by the famous behaviorist psychologist B. F. Skinner (1904-1990).


Develop into sporocysts and then rediae. This latter stage produces cercariae which encyst in various fish and develop into metacercariae. Mammalian and avian hosts acquire infection by ingesting raw or undercooked fish. Even metacercariae soaked in brine or wine remain infective for several days. These flukes are probably able to live for up to a year in their hosts, with reservoirs of infection in dogs, cats, foxes and some birds (Malek, 1980).

The General Abdomen

Pleural Cavity Chest Tube

Based on experimental work done on cats, James and his colleagues published two often cited works on the effects of water-soluble contrast medium, barium sulfate, oral pharyngeal flora, and mixtures of flora and contrast media on the feline mediastinum 11,12 . Postmortem examinations were done over time intervals reaching 90 days.


***This observation period applies only to dogs and cats. Except in the case of threatened or endangered species, other domestic and wild animals suspected as rabid should be euthanized and their tissues examined using appropriate laboratory techniques. ***This observation period applies only to dogs and cats. Except in the case of threatened or endangered species, other domestic and wild animals suspected as rabid should be euthanized and their tissues examined using appropriate laboratory techniques.


Rabies is primarily a disease of animals and most human cases occur in the developing world. The only areas free of animal rabies include Australia and New Zealand and islands such as the UK and Ireland, and the Pacific Islands. Rabies is most prevalent among wild foxes, wolves and jackals, followed by domestic dogs, skunks, cats, farm animals, bats and others. The principal reservoir in Africa, Central America (including Mexico), South America and Asia is the unvaccinated domestic dog. There is little information about rabies in wildlife in tropical areas. The major reservoir of infection in Europe is the red fox, and rabies has been identified in Central European deer. The major sources in the USA include skunks, bats and racoons. Note that an unprovoked attack by an animal is more likely than a provoked attack to indicate that an animal is rabid and great care must be exercised to avoid contact with stray or unvaccinated dogs, cats and ferrets, particularly in countries where...


As described in Chapter 2, focusing may be achieved by a variety of methods (see also ter Haar & Hand 1981). The simplest way is to use a spherical, curved shell of piezoelectric material as the transducer. The focus of such a shell lies on the central axis, near the centre of curvature of the bowl. Field distributions for such transducers can be calculated (see Chapter 2 O'Neil 1949 Kossoff 1979). Focal lesions have been produced in the brain tissue of rats and cats using these focused bowl transducers (Warwick & Pond 1968 Robinson & Lele 1972) and in the prostate, liver, breast and kidney in humans (ter Haar 1995).

Experimental Models

Skinner's laboratory discoveries of the principles of instrumental conditioning began to be applied to humans in the 1940's and 1950's, experimental models of phobias in animals were developed. In the 1950's, Joseph Wolpe created phobia-like responses in cats by shocking them in ex

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