Cervical Spine Product

Dorn Spinal Therapy

Dorn Spinal Therapy has been in uses in the past 40 years. The credit of this method goes to Dieter Dorn, who has made a significant impact in the medical field. DORN- Method has been used on various patients where results could get witnessed instants. Due to the impact, this method has brought in the country. It has been declared the standard practice in treating Pelvical Disorders, Spinal, and Back pain. Dieter Dorn first used this method on his family, which was a sign of confidence in a method, which later gained much attention from different people in the country and also globally. Every day Dorn was able to offer treatment to 15- 20 patients in a day. His services were purely free which attracted attention both in the local and also global. The primary treatment that DORN-Method which could be treated using this method include spine healing therapy, misalignments of the spine, resolving pelvis and joints, and also solving out significant problems which could get attributed to vertebrae. More here...

Dorn Spinal Therapy Summary


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Craniocervical junction and cervical spine abnormalities

Certain conditions that affect the craniocervical junction and cervical spine are clinically relevant to anaesthetists. These conditions can result in difficult endotracheal intubation, owing to limited mobility of the head and neck. Inability to extend the head and flex the neck (sniffing position) can prevent the anaesthetist from achieving the ideal position for direct visualisation of the glottic opening which requires alignment of the three axes, i.e. the mouth, pharynx and trachea.

Airway management in the patient with a suspected cervical spine fracture [8

Cervical spine injuries occur in 2-5 of blunt trauma patients and of these 7-14 are unstable. All trauma patients should be managed as if they may have a cervical spine injury (Airway with cervical spine control - ATLS guidelines) until the neck is cleared. As long as manual in-line neck stabilisation is applied, rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia, followed by direct laryngoscopy and oral intubation appears to be safe. If intubation is not urgent, an awake fibre-optic intubation is another option. If intubation of the patient with a potential cervical spine injury fails, or appropriate experienced personnel are unavailable, the laryngeal mask airway or one of its various modifications are alternatives.

Axons of Mammalian Spinal Peripheral Nerves

Spinal nerves are organized into three structural levels (figure 5.2). The fundamental unit is the endoneurial unit, composed of an axon, its associated Schwann cell sheath, and surrounding connective tissue sheath, the endoneurium. The endoneurium and Schwann cells synthesize a basement membrane between them. Endoneurial units are organized into fascicles, each of which is surrounded by a perineurium. The fascicles are bundled into the nerve trunk, which is encased by the epineurium. The nerve trunks are richly vascularized by epineurial, intrafascicular, and perineurial arteries and arterioles, and a capillary network in the endoneurium. Each nerve trunk is a mixture of afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor) nerves that branch distally to innervate target tissues and organs (Ham and Cormack, 1979). In humans, there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves. Just before it enters the spinal cord, each nerve splits into sensory (dorsal) and motor (ventral) roots (FIGURE 5.3). The cell bodies of...

Radiosurgery for the Management of Spinal Metastases

Background Aims Large clinical experience with spinal radiosurgery to properly assess clinical experience has previously been limited. This study evaluated the clinical outcomes of single fraction radiosurgery as part of the management of metastatic spine tumors. Methods Five hundred patients with spinal metastases underwent radiosurgery (ages ranged from 18 to 85 years, mean 56 years). Lesion location included 73 cervical, 212 thoracic, 112 lumbar, and 103 sacral. The most common metastatic tumors were renal cell (93 cases), breast (83 cases), and lung (80 cases). Results The primary indication for radiosurgery was pain in 336 cases, as a primary treatment modality in 65 cases, for radiographic tumor progression in 51 cases, for post-surgical treatment in 9 cases, for progressive neurological deficit in 32 cases, and as a radiation boost in 7 cases. The maximum intratumoral dose ranged from 12.5 to 25 Gy (mean 20 Gy). Tumor volume ranged from 0.20 to 264 ml (mean 46 ml). Axial and or...

Groups at risk of spinal infection

Children - haematogenous spread of infection to a vertebral body or a vascularised intervertebral disc usually in the lumbar spine. 279 Post-spinal surgery. Infection starts as a vertebral osteomyelitis which then 'ruptures' into the disc space. May occur at any level, but most commonly lumbar spine.

Therapies For Injured Spinal Cord

The annual incidence of spinal cord injuries (SCI) in developed countries varies from 2.1 to 123.6 per million persons in the United States the injury rate has been estimated at 43-55 per million (Harkey et al., 2003). SCIs result primarily from automobile accidents, recre ational accidents, sports injuries, and gunshot wounds and are suffered predominantly by males. Harkey et al. (2003) have summarized the classification of SCIs and their current clinical treatment. Most injuries involve vertebral fracture and are incomplete, with varied functional outcomes in terms of walking. A large study of surviving SCI patients found that 37 could not walk, 24 could walk but used a wheelchair to get around, and 39 were functional walkers (Curt et al., 2004). The total direct cost of spinal cord injury in the United States (data in constant 1995 dollars) was nearly 8B yr a few years ago (De Vivo, 1997). Maddox (1993) estimated that the regeneration of only two to five percent of the normal...

Case Study 1 Specialty Care Dartmouth Hitchcock Spine Center

James Weinstein, spine center founder A patient comes for his first visit to the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Spine Center in Lebanon, New Hampshire. He is greeted by the receptionist, given a touch-screen computer, and asked to use the computer to answer a set of important questions about his health before seeing the physician. He takes less than twenty minutes to answer questions about his back problem, functional status, expectations for treatment, and working status. When the patient finishes, he hands the computer back to the receptionist. The receptionist transfers the survey data to the reception desk computer, which has a custom-designed database application for processing and printing a patient value compass (PVC) in the form of a one-page summary report (Figure 9.1). The PVC provides a balanced view of clinical and functional status, patient expectations for and satisfactions with her or his clinical care management, and other data on work status and costs of care. The PVC is used to...

Injury to the cervical spine

Gregor Linie

RP retropharyngeal soft tissue thickness (anterior to C2) -normal less than 6 mm. RT retrotracheal soft tissue thickness (anterior to C6) -normal less than 21 mm. 3 and 4 represents the spinal canal. RP retropharyngeal soft tissue thickness (anterior to C2) -normal less than 6 mm. RT retrotracheal soft tissue thickness (anterior to C6) -normal less than 21 mm. The cervical spine can be cleared clinically only in the fully conscious, unintoxicated and cooperative patient in whom there is no neck pain, no bony tenderness, no abnormal neurology, no distracting injuries and pain free full range of neck movements. Mechanisms of cervical spinal trauma are hyperflexion, hyperextension and compression. Usually, the six cervical spine injuries considered to be unstable are bilateral locked facets, type 2 odontoid fractures, flexion teardrop fracture, hangman's fracture (depending on degree of displacement), Jefferson's fracture, and a burst fracture with...

Axons of Mammalian Spinal Cord

A cross-section of cat spinal cord is illustrated in FIGURE 5.7. In mammals, spinal cord injury that destroys substantial numbers of axons and neurons causes sensory deprivation and paralysis below the level of injury, followed by muscle atrophy, spasticity, and bone loss (McDonald and Sadowsky, 2002 Eser et al., 2004). Cervical injuries result in disturbances in autonomic functions such as regulation of blood pressure, heart rate, and temperature. The spinal cord of mammals Although spinal cord axons do not regenerate after crush injury or transection that damages the pia mater, they transiently upregulate genes involved in growth cone formation and neurite extension (GAP-43, CAP-23, L1, NCAM), sprout briefly, and then undergo growth arrest and retraction (Lu and Waite, 1999). Failure to continue regeneration is due to the lack of expression, by associated glial (oligodendrocyte and or astrocyte) cells, of the appropriate neuronal survival and elongation-promoting molecules. Instead,...

Thoracic spine lumbar spine

Anterior Thoracic Adjusting Device

Rear access to the thoracic and lumbar spine and costotransversectomy for operating lumbar spine 4 tumours, spondylitis, spondylodiscitis 4 scoliosis 4 spondylolisthesis lumbar spine 4 tumours, spondylitis, spondylodiscitis 4 scoliosis 4 spondylolisthesis Front access to the cervicothoracic junction and to the upper thoracic spine, thoracotomy, transperitoneal access, lumbotomy for operating 4 posttraumatic lesions, fractures and misalignment in the thoracic and lumbar spine and in the lumbosacral junction 4 tumours, spondylitis, spondylodiscitis 4 scoliosis 4 spondylolisthesis

Axons of Amphibian Spinal Cord

Unlike mammals, larval and adult urodeles regenerate the axons of ascending and descending nerve tracts after transection or ablation of the spinal cord at the level of the trunk, with recovery of function (Piatt, 1955 Butler and Ward, 1965 Egar and Singer, 1972, 1981 Nordlander and Singer, 1978 Holder and Clarke, 1988 Chernoff et al., 2003 Ferretti et al., 2003). The ependymal (NSC) layer of the cord plays a central role in this process (Holder and Clarke, 1988 Ferretti et al., 2003 Chernoff et al., 2003). The ependymal cells in amphibians span the width of the cord wall, branching within the white matter to terminate in expanded end-feet that form the glia limitans under the pia mater (Holder et al., 1990). Morphologically, these cells resemble the radial glial cells of the embryonic spinal cord of birds and mammals (Clarke and Ferretti, 1998 Ferretti et al., 2003). However, they are different from the radial glial cells of birds and mammals in that they express GFAP, but not nestin...

Normal cervical spine

Normal Cervix Appearance

Fig. 4.7 Oblique view of cervical spine. This is helpful in demonstrating not only the intervertebral foramen (arrow) and facet joint alignment (dotted arrow), but also provides additional views of the cervicothoracic junction for alignment. Fig. 4.7 Oblique view of cervical spine. This is helpful in demonstrating not only the intervertebral foramen (arrow) and facet joint alignment (dotted arrow), but also provides additional views of the cervicothoracic junction for alignment. Fig. 4.9 Prominence of the soft tissue contour. Cervical spine osteomyelitis, with prevertebral abscess. Lateral cervical spine.This lateral cervical-spine radiograph shows marked widening of the lower prevertebral soft tissues (arrows) anterior to the C5 level with bony destruction of the C4 vertebral body. This was due to prevertebral abscess in association with cervical osteomyelitis. Gas can sometimes migrate into this potential space from aerodigestive tract injuries. Haemorrhage identified here may be...

Cerebrospinal Fluid System

Quadrigeminal Bodies

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is located within the ventricles and subarachnoid spaces in the brain and spine. Its composition schematically contains 0-5 1 (0-5 x 106 l) cells, 40-80 mg dl glucose, 15-60 mg dL protein. The principal source of CSF is represented by the choroid plexi of the lateral, third and fourth ventricles. The total volume is approximately 140-150 ml, 30-40 of which is in the ventricular system, with a production rate of about 20 ml h and a turnover rate of about 5 h. The CSF moves within the ventricles and subarachnoid spaces under the influence of hydrostatic pressure generated by its production and a complex pushing system dependent on internal carotid pulsation in systole and negative pressure in the superior sagittal sinus during diastole. The CSF cushions the brain, regulates brain extracellular fluid, and allows the distribution of neuroactive substances. The choroid plexi are fringe-like processes of the pia mater which project into the ventricular cavity....

Spinal Reflex

A number of reflexes can be generated in the mammalian spinal cord even after it has been surgically isolated from the brain. The stretch reflex is an example of a spinal reflex. When a muscle is stretched, such as when a tendon is tapped or when an attempt is made to reach for an object, sensory detectors or receptors within the muscle are activated to signal the muscle stretch. These receptors are at the end of very long nerve fibers that travel from the muscle receptor to the spinal cord, where they activate spinal motor neurons. The motor neurons control the same muscle on which the stretch receptor that initiated the stretch signal is located. When activated, the spinal motor neurons signal the muscle, causing it to contract. In this manner, when a muscle stretch is detected, the stretch reflex ensures that a contraction is generated in the muscle to counteract and balance the stretch. This type of reflex is referred to as a monosynaptic reflex because it involves only one...

Superior articular process zygapophysis

Uncus corporis. Upwardly projecting, hook-like process on either side of the cervical vertebrae. It occasionally gives rise to bony proliferations which can exert pressure on the spinal nerve. C 22 Groove for spinal nerve. Sulcus n. spinalis. Groove on the transverse processes of C3-7 for the spinal nerves exiting from the intervertebral foramina. C

Tumor Features That Influence Prognosis

About 5-10 of tumors grow directly into surrounding tissues, increasing both morbidity and mortality. Microscopic or gross tumor invasion, which can occur with both PTC and FTC 19 , may involve neck muscles, blood vessels, recurrent laryngeal nerves, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus, or tumor can extend into the spinal cord and brachial plexus. The symptoms are usually hoarseness, cough, dysphagia, hemoptysis, and airway insufficiency or neurological dysfunction. Extrathyroidal tumor extension usually leads to lymph node and distant metastasis 67 . The tumor was locally invasive in 115 of our patients (8 of those with papillary and 12 of those with follicular carcinoma) 10-year recurrence rates were 1.5 times and cancer-specific death rates were five times those of patients without local tumor invasion, and nearly all with tumor invasion died within the first decade 19 .

Mechanism Of The Development Of Osteoblastic Metastases

Several neoplasms may produce osteoblastic metastases. Prostate cancer cells commonly metastasize to the most heavily vascularized parts of the skeleton, particularly the red bone marrow of the axial skeleton and the proximal ends of the long bones, the ribs and the vertebral columns. The interaction of prostate carcinoma with the skeleton is influenced by the microenvironment and a major determinant of the site of skeletal metastasis is blood flow. The most common metastatic site of prostate cancer is the vertebral column, probably because prostate cancer cells are transported to the spine via Batson's plexus, which is a low-pressure, high-volume system of vertebral veins that runs up the spine with extensive intercommunication with other major venous systems, such as the pulmonary, caval and portal systems.

Federico Colomboa Leopoldo Casentinia Carlo Cavedonh Joseph Stancanello0 Paolo Francescon0 Francesco Causin0 Vittore

Object In our department, radiosurgery as been employed for managing arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) since 1984. An original, LINAC based, isocentric, multiple converging arcs technique has been utilized for treating 642 patients until December 2002. Since January 2003, an image-guided robotic radiosurgery apparatus (the Cyberknife) has been utilized in clinical practice. A modification of the treatment planning procedure was developed in order to include angiography in target volume definition. Technique The technique is based on image fusion between CT and 3D rotational angiography. The image fusion procedure employs a mutual information maximization algorithm, the maximization of entropy correlation coefficient, to take into account translation, rotation, linear scaling and angular deformation. Results The new procedure allowed the employ of the Cyberknife in a series of 113 patients affected by AVMs. In large ( 10 ml) and spinal AVMs, prescribed radiation dose has been...

C Creation of Stem Cells via Dedifferention

Dedifferentiation is a loss of phenotypic specialization that converts differentiated cells into adult stem cells, which then proliferate and differentiate into replacement tissue (Brockes, 1998 Carlson, 1998 Geraudie et al., 1998 Stocum, 2004a). Dedifferentiation is a relatively common mechanism of regeneration in lower vertebrates. Fish regenerate fins and barbels (teleosts) by dedifferentiation, and certain species of lizards can regenerate tails by this mechanism. The divas of dedifferentiation in the vertebrate world, however, are the anuran tadpoles and the larval and adult urodele amphibians. These animals can regenerate the same tissues as mammals via compensatory hyperplasia and resident ASCs, but use dedifferentiation to regenerate a wide variety of tissues and complex structures that mammals cannot regenerate, including limbs, tails, jaws, lens, spinal cord, neural retina, and intestine.

Thyroid Cancer Multidisciplinary Team and the Organizational Paradigm

These are established in those district general hospitals that are large enough to have clinical teams with the expertise and facilities to deal with the more common cancers, such as breast, lung, and colorectal (bowel) cancers Differentiated thyroid cancer Fine-needle aspiration cytology Immunometric assay Intensity modulated radiotherapy - special technique of external beam radiotherapy where high doses can be given to tumors close to vital structures like spinal cord twithout exceeding the tolerance dosage of the vital organ by controlling the energy deposited in real time in different parts of the radiation field by complex computer based treatment planning Improving Outcomes Guidance The Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposures) Regulations 2000 Ionising Radiations Regulations Manual of Cancer Services

Therapeutic Goals

The stretch reflex is elicited from muscles that are under tension, either from elongation or from contraction. The reflex has two parts. The first is a short latency spinal reflex that produces little force and may not be of functional significance. The second part, called the functional stretch response, has a longer latency but produces a more powerful and functional contraction (Conrad and Meyer-Lohmann 1980 Chan 1984). To be effective as a

Neurological manifestations

Cobalamin deficiency may cause bilateral peripheral neuropathy or degeneration (demyelination) of the posterior and pyramidal tracts of the spinal cord and, less frequently, optic atrophy or cerebral symptoms. The patient classically presents with paraesthesiae, muscle weakness or difficulty in walking and sometimes dementia, psychotic disturbances or visual impairment. Long-term nutritional cobalamin deficiency in infancy leads to poor brain development and impaired intellectual development. Folate deficiency may cause mental changes such as depression and slowness and has been suggested to cause organic nervous disease, but this is uncertain. Methotrexate injected into the cerebrospinal fluid may, however, cause brain or spinal cord damage. Neural tube defects in the fetus are discussed above.

D The mechanism of central sensitisation

Sustained or repetitive C-nociceptor activity produces alterations in the response of the central nervous system to inputs from the periphery. When identical noxious stimuli are repeatedly applied to the skin at a certain rate, there is a progressive build-up in the response of spinal

Second Trimester Ultrasonography

The routine second trimester ultrasound scan (18-20 weeks) includes a series of predefined images to obtain standardized measurements. Within this, an evaluation is made of the key structures, e.g. intracranial structures, fetal spine, kidneys, heart, extremities. This detects 60-80 of major, and 35 of minor congenital malformations (Chitty et al., 1991 Luck, 1992). An increased sensitivity for ultrasound diagnosis is achieved in high-risk pregnancies where a specific fetal part is surveyed, e.g. following a high maternal serum alphafetoprotein (MSAFP) suggestive of a neural tube defect (NTD) or a family history of a cardiac abnormality. Prenatal diagnosis of NTDs and cardiac defects will be briefly discussed here as examples of fetal structural malformations detected by ultrasound.

Muscles Of Lower Limb

9 M. tensor fasciae latae. o Near the anterior superior iliac spine. i Above the iliotibial tract lateral to the tibial tuberosity. A Flexion, abduction and medial rotation of thigh at the hip joint. Flexion, extension and final rotation at the knee joint. I Superior gluteal nerve. C E 12 M. gemellus superior. o Ischial spine. i Tendon of obturator internus and trochanteric fossa. A Lateral rotation, adduction and abduction of thigh. I Sacral plexus. A D E

Measurement of the serum cobalamin

Serum cobalamin is usually measured by one of a number of radioisotope dilution, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. These are frequently automated. Normal serum cobalamin levels range from 160 to 200 ng L to about 1000 ng L (ng X 0.738 pmol, so 200 ng L 148 pmol L). In patients with megaloblastic anaemia due to cobalamin deficiency, the level is usually less than 100 ng L. In general, the more severe the deficiency, the lower the serum cobalamin level. In patients with spinal cord damage due to the deficiency, levels are very low even in the absence of anaemia. Values of between 100 and 200 ng L are regarded as borderline. They may occur, for instance, in pregnancy, in patients with megaloblastic anaemia due to folate deficiency and in patients with HC deficiency. The relative concentrations of HC and TC also influence the total serum cobalamin level. Raised serum cobalamin levels (if not due to recent therapy) are usually due to a rise in HC (Table 5.4), or to liver or renal...

Diagnostic Frameworks for General Practice

'The masqueraders can be grouped into primary and secondary groups. The primary (most common) masqueraders are depression, diabetes mellitus, drugs, anemia, thyroid disease, spinal dysfunction, and urinary tract infection. A secondary (less common) list includes chronic renal failure, HIV AIDS, rare bacterial infections (e.g. subacute bacterial endocarditis, tuberculosis), systemic viral infections (e.g. infectious mononucleosis, hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), neurological dilemmas (e.g. Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis), connective tissue disorders (e.g. systemic lupus erythe-matosus, polymyalgia rheumatica).

Processes sensations of fine touch pressure twopoint discrimination vibration and proprioception

- consists primarily of group III and IV fibers, which enter the spinal cord and terminate in the dorsal horn. - Course second-order neurons cross the midline to the anterolateral quadrant of the spinal cord and ascend to the contralateral thalamus, where they synapse on third-order neurons. Third-order neurons ascend to the somatosensory cortex, where they synapse on fourth-order neurons.

Inhomogeneous Media Including Gas Bubbles

When the propagation medium is not a homogeneous fluid, mechanisms other than the structural or thermal relaxation of its molecular constituents may contribute to the excess absorption (Morfey 1968). In addition to scattering the sound waves (covered in Chapter 6), inhomogeneities in the inertial or elastic properties of the medium can be responsible for the extraction of the acoustic wave energy by either viscous or thermal processes.4 Viscous damping results from the relative motion that occurs, between a suspended structure and the embedding medium, when the density of the inhomogeneity is different from that of the medium. If the density of the inhomogeneity is uniform, it will simply attempt to move back and forth along the axis of sound propagation. If the density is not uniform, there will also be a tendency for relative rotational motion to occur. In either case absorption of acoustic wave energy occurs when the velocity amplitude of the relative motion is diminished because...

Cord compression and injury

D Injury to the spinal cord with neurological symptoms that depend on the site and extent of injury. A Trauma and tumours are the most common causes. Trauma can cause direct cord contusion or compression by bone fragments, haematoma or acute disk prolapses. Tumours can be primary, but are more commonly metastases. Other less common causes are vascular malformations, e.g. cavernous haemangio-mas, spinal abscesses and TB (Pott's disease). A R Significant spinal cord injury is assocated with severe trauma, often with head injuries. In the presence of a tumour or vascular malformation, relatively minor trauma can cause severe symptoms. Other predisposing factors include osteoporosis, metabolic bone disease or vertebral disk disease. E Diaphragmatic breathing, reduced anal tone, hyporeflexia, priapism and spinal shock ( BP without tachycardia) are early signs of a spinal cord injury in trauma. Motor Weakness or paralysis (LMN signs) and downward plantar reflexes in the acute phase and at...

The Developmentally Disabled Population

The Administration on Developmental Disabilities of the United States Department of Health and Human Services estimates that there are four million Americans with developmental disabilities. Data specific to the incidence and prevalence of developmental disabilities are difficult to obtain because of the various etiologies present in this population. Conditions which often fall under the umbrella of developmental disabilities include mental retardation, autism, epilepsy, spinal cord injury, sensory impairment, traumatic brain injury, and cerebral palsy.

Symptomatic treatment

Drug is started at a dose of 25-35 mg kg, given by an 8- to 12-h subcutaneous infusion overnight, approximately 1 year after the start of regular transfusion. The usual dose in older children and adults is 40 mg kg. Patients should receive up to 200 mg of ascorbate on the day of infusion, approximately 30 min before it is started. Intolerance to desferrioxamine is extremely rare but, particularly at high doses, there may be ocular changes, including cataracts and retinal damage, or acoustic nerve impairment. Other complications, particularly if the drug is given to patients with low body iron levels, include reduction in linear growth, sometimes associated with evidence of cartilaginous dysplasia of the long bones and spine. Infection with Yersinia enterocolitica is a rare but well-documented complication. But these complications are rare in children who are kept under careful surveillance and the main problem posed by desferrioxamine is non-compliance much can be done by intensive...

Nonvascular Intervention

Use small spinal needle to access GB and in tandem insert 8 FR catheter a. Access abscess with small spinal needle and aspirate pus for microbiology b. Adjacent to spinal needle, in tandem, place catheter 2. Place a small spinal or equivalent needle in the upper pole calyx

Standard steps in the elective programme

Preparation of the patient for the planned operation begins on making the indication and planning the date. Special implants or special positioning aids, for example a cervical spine holder, must be ordered in plenty of time and be available in time for the operation, and be sterilised if necessary.

Fracture Vertebral si

Vertebral fractures can be divided according to the mechanism of injury. Forced flexion (most common) of the spine results in a wedge fracture of the vertebral body. Normally stable but torn posterior ligaments can cause instability. Axial compression from a vertical force on the spine leads to a vertical vertebral fracture complicated by disc material being forced into the vertebral body, driving bony fragments into the spinal canal (burst fractures). Flexion, compression and posterior distraction damages the posterior and middle segments of the spine, displacing bone fragments and disc material into the spinal canal. This is an unstable fracture. History of trauma and the mechanism of injury. Complaint of pain or stiffness of the neck or spine. Numbness, paraesthesiae, weakness or loss of sphincter control may occur with neural damage. X-rays (AP and lateral views) of the affected spine to identify the fracture. The 3-column theory states that a fracture is unstable if 2 out of 3...

According to ATLS guidelines in trauma

Reduction of any dislocation or subluxation by traction or adjusting posture. Use of a firm collar or a brace for stable fractures. Bed rest and analgesia until pain and muscle spasm subsides. Surgery A halo-body cast is used for unstable cervical fractures, whereas internal fixation with bone grafts, plates or wires is used in unstable thoracolumbar fractures. Decompression is necessary for any bone fragments encroaching the spinal canal. Spinal fusion is needed for burst fractures threatening the spinal cord. Rehabilitation Required for any neurological deficit. Death, spinal cord damage, non-union.

Di Receptor Activation is a Necessary Requirement for LTP

Further investigation into the role of specific dopamine receptor subtypes in hippocampal-prefrontal LTP was accomplished using the same procedure as for the infusion of dopamine (i.e. reverse microdialysis). The advantage of using such a procedure is that it allows controlling of the perfusion of drugs and, simultaneously, recording of the synaptic responses. Control animals received artificial cerebral spinal fluid (ACSF) continuously while treated animals received drugs (at different doses) for 30 min starting 20 min before tetanus. The main finding was that dopamine Dj receptors exert a clear facilitating effect on LTP but also that receptor activation is necessary for the LTP at hippocampal-prefrontal synapses (Fig. 3 Gurden et al., 2000). LTP is significantly higher when the full D, agonist SKF81297 is locally infused in the PFC prior to tetanus. The increase in LTP amplitude is significantly larger at certain doses tested when compared to ACSF-controls, demonstrating that an...

Radical Prostatectomy Versus Surveillance

In a study by Albersten, a significant survival advantage for surgery over surveillance was noted in treating poorly differentiated disease (Gleason score 8-10).13 Moreover, a watchful waiting strategy is not free of complications. Local progression from prostate cancer can result in ureteral obstruction or bladder outlet obstruction. In a review by Aus and associates, 17 of patients who were managed expectantly underwent procedures to relieve upper tract obstruction and 41 had at least one channel transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).12 Metastatic prostate cancer can cause severe bone pain, pathologic fracture, spinal cord compression and death.

Arteries Of Lower Limb Arteriae membri inferioris

A. cir-cumflexa iliaca superficialis. It proceeds parallel to the inguinal ligament in the direction of the anterior superior iliac spine. B External pudendal arteries. Aa. pudendae ex-ternae. Usually paired arteries that supply the lower abdominal wall and the external genitalia. B Anterior scrotal branches. Rami scrotales anteriores. Branches that supply the scrotum. B Anterior labial branches. Rami labiales anteriores. They supply the labia. B Inguinal branches. Rami inguinales. Branches that supply the inguinal region. B

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis For Single Gene Disorders

In addition to DM and FRAXA, current PGD practices include PGD for Huntington's disease (HD), spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), and spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) types 2, 3,6, and 7. Overall, approximately 300 PGD cycles were performed for more than 150 patients worldwide, resulting in the transfer of unaffected embryos in approximately 85 of cycles, and yielding 20 clinical pregnancies per transfer 5 . The majority of these cases were done for DM, XRM1, and HD. The accuracy of PGD for dynamic mutations has been reported to be improved with the application of fluorescent PCR with the expanded long template (ELT) kit, which enabled reducing the ADO rate from 30-35 in both conventional and fluorescent PCR to as low as 5 in the testing for DM 83 . The other attractive approach for improving the accuracy of PCR analysis for this group of diseases, similar to those mentioned in Chapter 2, involved the application of real-time PCR, which was found to reduce the ADO rate by half, in...

General statements plain film radiography

The lateral radiograph (Fig. 4.3) is the single most important component in the radiographic assessment of the acutely injured cervical spine. Proper patient positioning is essential in obtaining a true lateral radiograph. The degree of laterallarity is assessed usually by the superimposition of the paired articular masses (Fig. 4.4). Usually, the degree of rotation of the head is indicated by AP radiograph of the cervical spine (Fig. 4.5) usually visualises the cervical spine from C3 to the upper thoracic segments. It provides valuable evidence of flexion injuries such as anterosubluxation, lateral interfacet 166 dislocation, clay shoveler's fracture (see Question 13) and burst fractures of the lower cervical spine. Frontal projection is the only plain film study in which the uncovertebral body process fracture can be identified 4 .

Nervous and humoral control

The central nervous system (CNS) modifies many functions of the gastrointestinal tract. In cats, stimulation of the cerebrum, midbrain and hypothalamus increases colonic motility. The colon appears to receive impulses from the CNS and upper gastrointestinal tract via the spinal cord. This is supported by the association of thoracic spinal cord injury with intractable constipation6. If the proximal region of the colon is distended, contraction distally is inhibited by impulses passing along intermesenteric neurons between pre- and para- vertebral ganglia and then via splanchnic or lumbar colonic nerves. With extrinsic regulation the parasympathetic neurons appear to be excitatory and the sympathetics inhibitory in the musculature of the colon.

Diagnosis And Investigations

Primary or idiopathic frozen shoulder is diagnosed from the history and investigation. As has been stated, it is a diagnosis of exclusion after other causes of painful shoulder stiffness are precluded. As part of the assessment, an attempt should be made to define the particular stage that the disease is presenting. This designation is invaluable in informing the patient about their individual prognosis and their best treatment. Codman's original description of the condition is still valid (7). Pain, in the early stages, can be severe and usually radiates to the deltoid insertion. It is worse when the affected shoulder attempts movement but can also be present at rest, invariably interfering with sleep. The patient often notices a gradual loss of motion specifically, movements overhead and behind the back become difficult. Patients with rotator cuff pathology can also present with these complaints, which can lead to difficulties in diagnosis. Enquiries should be directed at...

Feneis Pocket Atlas of Human Anatomy 2000 Thieme

Vv. medullae spinalis. Venous plexus in the subarachnoid space for drainage of the spinal cord. 20a Anterior spinal veins. Vv. spinales anteriores. Unite cranially with the network of the pons and continue caudally as the terminal vein. 20b Posterior spinal veins. Vv. spinales posteriores. They terminate cranially at the rhomboid fossa, caudally at the conus medullaris.

Radiographic features

Squaring of the anterior border of the lower thoracic and lumbar vertebrae is one of the earliest radiographic features of ankylosing spondylitis, best demonstrated on the lateral radiograph of the spine (Fig. 4.28). As the condition progresses, delicate desmophytes are formed bridging the vertebral bodies, these have a vertical rather than horizontal orientation distinguishing them from osteophytes of degenerative disease. Paravertebral ossifications are also common. Apophyseal joint and vertebral body fusion usually later on in the course of the disease is a pathognomonic radiographic finding known as the 'bamboo spine' (Fig. 4.29). Sacro-iliac joint involvement is usually present with Complications of ankylosing spondylitis in the cervical spine include atlanto-axial subluxation (Fig. 4.31), which may become fixed with multilevel spinal fusion. Ankylosing spondylitis patients are more prone to fractures following relatively minor trauma. The fixed spinal segments can result in...

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

Most cases occur in the thoracic and lumbar spine (greater than 90 of cases), with the cervical spine involved in greater than 70 of cases (Fig. 4.32). The sacro-iliac joints are spared which can help to differentiate this condition from ankylosing spondylitis. This condition is associated with hyperostosis at sites of tendon and ligament attachments to the bone, ligamentous ossification and osteophytosis involving the axial and appendicular skeleton 5 . This is best demonstrated on a lateral radiography of the spine (Fig. 4.33). 193 This condition needs to be distinguished from the previously described 'bamboo spine' seen in ankylosing spondylitis. The sacro-iliac joints are usually spared in DISH, and usually no paravertebral ossification is seen (Fig. 4.34).

Methods and Procedures

Participants were recruited from three sites (1) a rehabilitation hospital, (2) a rehabilitation unit at an acute care hospital, and (3) a renal outpatient clinic affiliated with the same acute care hospital. Twenty-five percent reported their primary disabling condition as stroke 31.3 reported spinal cord injury 22.5 reported renal disease and 21.2 reported some other disability. Of the participants, 72.5 had one or more hospitalizations over the previous year, and 27.5 had not been hospitalized over the previous year.

Vagus Nerve X Cranial Nerve

The rostral portion of this nucleus gives origin to the special visceral efferent fibers of the IX c.n., whereas the caudal portion is represented by the cranial part of the spinal accessory nerve and originates the special visceral efferent fibers of the XI c.n. which, joining the fibers of the X c.n., innervate the pharynx and larynx muscles. Preganglionic GVE fibers, originating from the most caudal portion of the nucleus, cross the spinal tract and the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, emerge in correspondence with the mixed nerves, and spread to the heart (SA, AV nodes, striated muscle in the carotid sinus reflex), the respiratory tract and abdominal viscera. The nucleus of the tractus solitarius receives the vagal afferent fibers which enter the inferior cerebellar peduncle ventrally near the lateral side of the bulb, crossing the spinal tract and the spinal nucleus of the trigenimal nerve. A small contingent of GSA fibers coming from the cutaneous areas behind the ear and...

Accessory Nerve XI Cranial Nerve

The SVE component of the spinal accessory nerve originates from a group of bulbar cells, placed ventrally to the nucleus of the IX c.n. This is the cranial or supraspinal component of the spinal accessory nerve and corresponds to the most caudal portion of the nucleus ambiguus. The spinal part of the GSE accessory nerve originates from a cell column located in the anterior horn of the first five or six cervical segments in the lateral position. The radicular fibers originating from these cells curve posterolaterally and emerge from the lateral side of the cervical cord between the dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal nerves. They innervate the sternocleidomastoid muscle of the same side and the upper portions of the trapezius. The spinal component of the accessory nerve receives fibers through the medial longitudinal fasciculus for the coordination of head and eye rotation movements (cephalo-and oculogyric movements).

Cavitas trigeminalis Cavum trigeminale

Dura mater spinalis. It is separated from the wall of the vertebral canal by an epidural space. D 33 Epidural space. Spatium epidurale (peridurale). Space between the spinal dura mater and the wall of the vertebral canal. It is filled with fat and venous plexuses. D

Locked facet injuries

Flexion and rotational injury will result in a unilateral locked facet while an extreme hyperflexion force will result in a bilateral locked facet. Bilateral locked facets usually present with cervical spinal cord injury and injury to the cervical roots. Diagnosis is usually made on the lateral cervical spine and AP radiographs. Both unilateral and bilateral locked facets will often produce subluxation. Horizontal subluxation of greater than 3.5 mm of m Is this injury associated with spinal cord damage Fig. 4.53 Locked facets. AP cervical spine.There is malalignment of the spinous processes (arrows) at the C5-C6 level corresponding to the level of locked facets (Fig. 4.52). Incidental nodular densities and smooth pleural thickening at the left lung apex are calcified granulomas and pleural reaction related to previously healed TB. Fig. 4.53 Locked facets. AP cervical spine.There is malalignment of the spinous processes (arrows) at the C5-C6 level corresponding to the level of locked...

Clay Shovelers fracture

This usually refers to a fracture of the spinous process seen involving the lower cervical spine, usually C7. Initially described in workers who used to shovel clay and during the throwing phase, the clay may stick to the shovel jerking the trapezius or other muscles which are attached to the cervical spinous processes resulting in an avulsion fracture. This fracture may also occur with a whiplash injury or injuries that displace the arms upwards, neck hyperflexion, or a direct blow to the spinous process.

Peripheral nervous system

The functional unit of the nervous system is the neuron, a cell which receives or sends information in the form of electrical impulses. The major component of the neuron is the cell body, the portion which contains the nucleus and most of the internal organelles. Two major forms of neurons are found within the nervous system sensory neurons, which transmit the impulse toward the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and motor neurons, which receive impulses from the brain or spinal cord and transmit the impulse to muscles or other tissues.

Central Nervous System

The central nervous system is composed of two principal structures the brain and the spinal cord. The brain is one of the largest organs in the human body, weighing on average about three pounds and consisting of one trillion neurons by early adulthood. The brain is subdivided into four major functional areas. The cerebrum, the largest portion of the brain, regulates sensory and motor functions. The convolutions characteristic of the human brain represent the physical appearance of the cerebrum. The brain stem connects the brain with the spinal cord, carrying out both sensory and motor functions. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus, the relay center for sensory functions entering the cerebrum, and the hypothalamus, which controls much of the peripheral nervous system activity and regulates endocrine processes. The fourth portion of the brain is the cerebellum, the rear of the brain where voluntary muscle activity is controlled.

What is multislice CT

With multi-slice CT, a single gantry rotation will capture multiple images, e.g. with quadslice CT, each gantry rotation captures four slices of data. The great advantage of multi-slice CT is its speed and its ability to cover large anatomical areas with thin collimation. There is no associated reduction in image quality. There are numerous applications including global trauma assessment (head, cervical spine, chest, abdomen and pelvis), vascular imaging, pulmonary embolism, virtual colonoscopy, lung cancer screening and cardiac imaging. One of the advantages of multi-detector CT is the ability to image organs in various phases of intravenous contrast enhancement - for instance, the pancreas can be scanned in arterial, parenchymal and portal venous phases with a single contrast injection.

Sections through the mesencephalon Sectiones mesencephalici B C D

Formatio (substantia) reticularis. Mesencephalic portion of reticular formation extending up from the spinal cord. It lies around the cerebral aqueduct, and its scattered ganglion cells function in the integration of muscular activities. B C D

Lipofuscin and Melanin

Lipofuscin or age pigment, the by-product of cellular autopha-gia (self-digestion) and lipid peroxidation due to free radical accumulation, has a protein and a lipid component. It accumulates with aging in most CNS cells, both neurons and glial cells, where it follows a regional distribution (e.g., in the hippocampus, cerebellum, anterior horn of spinal cord). It increases linearly with age also in other cells of the body (e.g., cardiac and muscle cells, macrophages, interstitial cells). Lipofuscin can be visualized as autofluorescent material (Fig. 5A and B) and, with the electron microscope, as dark granules, either scattered in the cytoplasm or clustered around the nucleus (Fig. 6A and B) (50). Lipofuscin's functional significance (if any) is unclear. The claim that lipofuscin accumulation interferes with intracellular function or that reduction of brain lipofuscin through the administration of antioxidants may lead to improved neuro-psychologic behavior remains controversial.

Intrapartum management of severe preeclampsia

All women with severe pre-eclampsia should have blood pressure recordings at least every hour during labor. Maternal pain relief during labor and delivery can be provided by either systemic opioids or segmental epidural anesthesia. Although there is no unanimity of opinion regarding the use of epidural anesthesia in women with severe pre-eclampsia, a significant body of evidence indicates that epidural anesthesia is safe in these women (National High Blood Pressure Working Group, 2000 Schiff et al., 1994). A randomized trial of 116 women with severe pre-eclampsia receiving either epidural analgesia or patient controlled analgesia reported no differences in Cesarean delivery rates, and the group receiving epidural had significantly better pain relief during labor (Hogg et al., 1999). The use of either epidural, spinal, or combined techniques or regional anesthesia is considered by most obstetric anesthesiologists to be the method of choice during Cesarean delivery. In women with severe...

Gait Analysis Observation and Manual Evaluation

To analyze the gait pattern start with an inspection in all three planes. In stance look for the alignment of the head and neck, shoulders and upper trunk, lumbar spine and pelvis, hips, knees and feet (O Fig. 12.4). Inspection of the gait concentrates not only on the motion of the lower extremities but also on the symmetry of the leg and pelvic motion, the rotation of the upper trunk, and the arm swing. Check walking aids such as walkers, canes, orthoses or prostheses, and observe abnormal wear and tear on the shoes. Also note the velocity and endurance and whether the patient can walk independently.

Recommended Evaluation And Treatment

D 400IU daily.8 All men underwent DEXA scans of the lumbar spine, hip and total body up to 24 months. In the placebo group, bone density remained unchanged, while in the alen-dronate arm the bone density increased, particularly in the lumbar spine. These changes were not related to testosterone or estradiol levels. The incidence of vertebral fractures in the placebo group was 7.1 , while in the alendronate group it was only 0.8 (P 0.02). Frediani and associates also performed a placebo-controlled study of alendronate 10 mg daily (n 30) versus placebo (n 30), with all men receiving calcium 500 mg daily. These men were followed up to 24 months with DEXA scans of the hip and spine. The men on placebo in this study had a loss of bone mineral density of 2.8-3.6 , while those on alendronate had a bone mineral density gain of 3.4-6.3 . Smith et al. recently published a new series of 43 men treated either with leuprolide alone (22) or leuprolide plus intravenous pamidronate (a bisphosphonate)...

Infection With Alaria Americana

Cercariae present in the peritoneal cavity, bronchial aspirate, brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lung, lymph nodes, pancreas, retroperitoneal tissue, spinal cord, spleen and stomach (Freeman et al., 1976). The patient died due to extensive pulmonary haemorrhage, possibly related to immunemediated mechanisms. It was believed that the patient became infected through eating inadequately cooked frogs' legs while hiking. There is no experience of the use of anthelminthic treatment for these patients, but praziquantel may be beneficial.

Prostate carcinoma 163

Metastatic spread Bone pain or spinal cord compression from bone metastases. Micro Adenocarcinoma (95 ) with a variable degree of differentiation. Gleason score Grading based on histology, two scores are given based on predominant appearance, with maximum score of 5 + 5 (10). Spread Local growth into seminal vesicles, bladder and rectum lymphatic spread to iliac and para-aortic nodes blood-borne spread most commonly to bone (especially to the spine) as well as lung or liver. Disease Obstructive hydronephrosis, hypercalcaemia, spinal cord compression.

Use of Autonomic Nervous System

Not all reflexes involve activation of skeletal muscles. For example, control of the urinary bladder involves a spinal reflex that activates smooth muscles. Also, temperature regulation is partially the product of a reflexive response to changes in external or internal environments. Many of these types of reflexes engage the autonomic nervous system, a division of the nervous system that is involved in regulating and maintaining the function of internal organs. Not all reflexes involve simple, local, short-latency responses. The maintenance of posture when standing upright is a generally automatic, reflexive system that one does not think about. This system includes neurons in the spinal cord and brain stem. The body's equilibrium system (the vestibular or balance system) involves receptors in the middle ear, brain-stem structures, and spinal motor neurons, while locomotion requires the patterned activation of several reflex systems. Finally, a number of behavioral situations require...

Role of Neurotransmitters in Memory Processes

Among other neurotransmitters, glutamate and, to a lesser extent, aspartate are excitatory transmitters in the brain and spinal cord (Chapter 6) that may play a role in memory processes (80). Glutamate acts by binding to two types of receptors (i) those that regulate intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, and (ii) those that are ligand-gated ion channels such as the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)

Regeneration of Neurons in the Mammalian Brain

Neonatal astroglia induce the proliferation and differentiation of adult hippocampal NSCs into neurons in vitro, whereas the effect of adult astrocytes is only half that of neonatal cells (Song et al., 2002). Furthermore, the effect seems specific to hippocampal astrocytes, since spinal cord astrocytes do not support hippocampal neurogenesis. These results suggest that astrocytes are involved in generation of the hippocam-pal NSC niche, but that the low level of increase in neurogenesis in the injured adult hippocampus is due to deficient FGF-2 and EGF signaling from astrocytes to NSCs.

Diagnosis of Neurological Abnormalities

Spinal fluid (CSF) and postmortem brain homogenates have been discovered (Lewczuk et al., 2003, 2004). The search for Alzheimer biomarkers has not been limited to the immunoaffin-ity capture of amyloid peptides. Carrette et al. (2003) employed strong anionic exchange proteinchips and detected four overexpressed and one underexpressed polypeptide in Alzheimer cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These peptides were further identified as cystatin c, two -2-microglobulin isoforms, a VGF polypeptide, and an unknown polypeptide of 7.69 kDa.

Considerations regarding delivery

As regards anesthesia, neuraxial techniques (epidural, spinal) are preferred for women with pre-eclampsia eclampsia so long as close attention is paid to volume expansion and anesthetic technique, and there is no thrombocytopenia (National High Blood Pressure Program, 2000). In one randomized study, 80 women with severe pre-eclampsia were given epidural, combined spinal epidural, or general anesthesia with similar outcomes (Wallace etal., 1995). Hypotension is the major concern from regional anesthesia since pre-eclamptic women are total body fluid overloaded but have depleted intravascular volumes. Airway edema and exacerbation of hypertension with intubation are issues during general anesthesia.

Pathology of the Lesions

The lesions can be located at any level, from the spinal origin to the division in the axillary region. Avulsion at the level of spinal rootlets represents a very severe lesion, with no possibility of repair peripheral traction forces lead to tears of the dura and avulsions of the anterior and posterior rootlets. C7 and commonly C8 and T1 roots become horizontal with abduction of the arm and are frequently avulsed from the spine. C5 and C6 are more securely attached, their course is more oblique at the level of the cervical spine and they are often ruptured more distally in the scalenic region. Sometimes, when the mechanism of injury is central, the rootlets are avulsed from the spine without damage to the dura.

A Recommended reading

Plasticity in the spinal cord sensory map following peripheral nerve injury in rats. J Neurosci 1981 1 679-684. Dickenson AH, Chapman V, Green GM. The pharmacology of excitatory and inhibitory amino acid-mediated events in the transmission and modulation of pain in the spinal cord. Gen Pharmacol 1997 28 633-638.

Practical Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

Was achieved also for ciliated epithelia of the lung, secretary epithelia in the gut-like structures, insulin-producing beta cells, and the production of hematopoietic precursor cells, followed a coculture of embryonic stem cells with mouse bone marrow cell line 10-14 . It was also shown that the neural progenitors differentiate in vitro into astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, andma-ture neurons, which were able to respond to host signals and were capable of constructing the neuronal and glial lineages, following their transplan-tationinto the developing brain 15 . Controlling differentiation into pure populations of specific neural cells may eventually form the basis of therapy for some neurodegenerative disorders and spinal injuries. These developments provide an

Technological Advances

There are many areas in which new technologies and methods are being developed to enable high-throughput structure determination by X-ray crystallography 4, 5 . The process from gene to crystal structure is clearly multidisciplinary and advances in molecular biology, biochemistry, crystallization, X-ray data collection and computational analysis underpin high-throughput X-ray crystallography. Many of these advances are being made in the public-funded initiatives focused on structural genomics. These programs began several years ago when Japan began building the RIKEN Genomic Sciences Center in Yokohama and the USA began funding structural genomics pilot projects under the NIGMS (National Institute of General Medical Sciences) Protein Structure initiative 6 . Similar programs are underway in other countries, for example, the Protein Structure Factory in Germany is focusing on solving structures of human proteins in collaboration with the German Human Genome Project (DHGP) and the...

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

We recommend radiotherapy after total thyroidectomy to a dose of at least 60 Gy in 30 fractions over 6 weeks 17 . The initial target volume should include potential areas of lymph node spread up to a dose of 46 Gy (spinal cord tolerance) with a further 14Gy using 3D conformal planning. Our data support reports that radiotherapy alone or following incomplete resection results in poor local control. In seven patients treated with radiotherapy following biopsy alone, the median survival was only 6 months. However, high dose palliative irradiation for inoperable tumors may be beneficial. Consistent with other reports, chemotherapy is of little value and radioiodine is without benefit as these tumors are non-iodine avid.

Description Of The Organism

Most characteristic feature and refers to one or two collars of spines surrounding the oral sucker. The number of spines varies from 24 to 49, with many species belonging to the 37-collared-spine group. The adult also contains testes, ovaries and a ventral sucker. The adult secretes eggs into the host's intestinal lumen which are then passed in the feces. The eggs are large, ovoid, operculated, have a thin shell and vary in length (88-130 and width (53-90 depending on the species (Figure 24.3) (Malek, 1980). After approximately 10 days a miracidium is formed, which hatches and infects a snail intermediate host, where it develops into a sporocyst, two generations of rediae and then cercariae. This stage then encysts as metacercariae in a variety of second intermediate hosts, including snails, fish, bivalves or tadpoles. The definitive host then ingests the metacercariae to complete the life cycle. Development in the definitive host from a meta-cercariae to an egg-secreting adult worm...

Suggestions For Future Efforts

For example, a disability we need to know more about is traumatic spinal cord injury. There has been an increase in the prevalence of traumatic spinal cord injury among young African American males over the past decade. The growing number of severe traumatic spinal cord injuries occur among young African American males who reside in the in In an attempt to be broad and inclusive, this book has viewed disability very generally, but study on specific disability groups is clearly warranted and encouraged. As the two cited disabling conditions illustrate, functioning and adjustment are expected to differ for different disability groups based on factors such as the chronicity of the condition, the functional limitations imposed by the condition, and even the stigma (i.e., AIDS versus stroke) of the condition. Factors that affect the level of functioning or predictors are also expected to differ for different populations. Outcomes of interest would also differ depending upon the disability...

Clinical Features

The majority of infections are mild and asymptomatic, with heavier infestations possibly causing chronic diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, nausea and malaise (Goldsmith, 1978). Occasionally, intestinal infection can simulate an acute abdomen or appendicitis (Tantachamrun and Kliks, 1978). When heterophyid eggs disseminate hema-togenously, visceral complications can ensue (Malek, 1980). Eggs can be found in the heart, brain, spinal cord, liver, lungs and spleen. Lesions in the myocardium led to heart failure in some patients, while brain involvement has been reported to cause seizures.

Vertebral fusion Atlantoaxial

Ligaments Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments run down the anterior and posterior surface of the vertebral bodies the ligamenta flava connect the vertebral laminae, and in the cervical spine the ligamentum nuchae connects the spinous processes and runs from the 7th cervical vertebra to the external occipital protuberance. I Pre-op General anaesthetic assessment. Lateral view of cervical spine (flexion and extension) allows diagnosis of atlanto-axial instability. Post-op DVT prophylaxis. A brace or hard collar is worn for 8-12 weeks and a repeat radiograph is performed after removal. P Position The patient is positioned prone with the neck in a slightly flexed position for posterior cervical exposure. Radiographs of the spine are taken to confirm its position.

Deep Pectoral Fascia Impotens

Hiatus Aorticus Animals

Arches to connect the 2nd to 5th cervical vertebrae with the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. Its fibers also extend from the vertebral bodies to the transverse processes with the C6 transverse process as the central point. A Lateral and forward flexion of the neck. I Ventral ramus of spinal nerve. D 12 M. geniohyoideus. o Mental spine. i Body of hyoid bone. A Draws the hyoid forward and upward. I C1 via the hypoglossal nerve. B 12 Mm. levatores costarum. Muscles behind and below the long back muscles. o Thoracic transverse processes. i Ribs. I Posterior ramus of spinal nerve. B

Unconscious Proprioception

Understood by realizing that the first half of a pathway name commonly refers to where the pathway originates and the latter half refers to where the pathway terminates. E.g. the spinothalamic tract originates in the spinal cord and ends in the thalamus. As may be seen in the figure, a lesion (injury) of the pain-temperature pathway (spinothalamic tract), whether within the brain stem or spinal cord, results in loss of pain-temperature sensation contralaterally (i.e. on the opposite side of the body), below the level of the lesion. A lesion at the spinal level of the pathway for conscious proprioception (the ability to sense the position and movement of the limbs) and stereognosis (the ability to identify objects by touch) results in loss of these senses ipsilaterally (i.e. on the same side) below the level of the lesion. A unilateral lesion at the brain stem level or above results in contralateral loss of conscious proprioception. The path for light touch combines features of these...

Bone Lesion Localization

Metastatic disease to the bone may be readily apparent in some patients who have localizing symptoms. When local bone pain or swelling is present, plain radiographs often will demonstrate the lesion. A bone scan may then be obtained if these plain radiographs are equivocal, but also a bone scan may be helpful to search for other metastatic sites particularly on weight-bearing bones such as the femur, so that they can be treated before there is a pathologic fracture. Other radiological techniques such as computed tomography (CT) or particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium contrast appear to be quite sensitive, especially with the spine and pelvis, to locate metastases when the plain radiographs are normal and the bone scan is abnormal.4 An MRI of the spine may provide important information in patients with neurologic symptoms or vertebral body collapse. The MRI will delineate the extent of the tumor mass to determine if spinal cord impingement is imminent or...

Extension teardrop fracture

This is usually the result of a hyperextension injury caused by a force delivered to the face or the mandible that drives the head and neck into an abnormal extension. The extension teardrop fracture is a relatively large triangular fragment with its vertical height equal to or greater than its transverse width. The fractured fragment usually arises from the antero-inferior corner of the involved vertebra, most commonly the C2 vertebral body (Figs 4.47 and 4.48). This is an avulsion fracture at the site of insertion of the intact anterior longitudinal ligament during hyperextension of the head and upper cervical spine. Extension teardrop fractures are more common in older patients with osteopenia and degenerative disease of the spine. This is usually a stable injury in flexion and unstable in extension 2, 6 .

Investigators of CSF proteins

Although one can always return to the past and reawaken some of the earliest interests in the 'water of the brain', a clear start to modern biochemical analysis began in 1942 515 . Elvin Kabat, a biochemist working at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital in New York City, showed, using the Tiselius electrophoresis apparatus, that CSF differed from serum in that prealbumin (which he termed protein 'X') was specific to spinal fluid. For these analyses, he required up to 70 ml of CSF - i.e. approximately half of a patient's total fluid volume (about 125 ml) Hence he used mainly pooled CSF samples. The next major step, again taken by Kabat 514 , was the quantitative immunochemical precipitation of albumin and IgG, thereby reducing the volume of CSF required to about 2 ml. This heralded the beginning of routine CSF analysis, and not only allowed large numbers of patients to be studied but also led to practical aids for the diagnosis of individual patients. Another early investigator of CSF was...

Harvesting a Bone Graft from the Iliac Crest

Iliac Crest Bone Graft

Approach The somewhat thicker portions of the iliac crest (approximately 1.3-1.7 cm in diameter) are located in the anterior third between the anterior superior iliac spine (Fig. 15.1a, 3) and the iliac tubercle (Fig. 15.1a, Tub). The iliac spine is preserved anteriorly. An assistant presses down on the skin medial to the iliac crest so that the incision, and later the scar, will be lateral to the site where the bone graft is harvested. The incision should not be carried anteriorly past the iliac spine to avoid injury of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, as this would cause anesthesia or hypesthesia on the anterolateral thigh (Fig. 15.1b). The incision over the anterior iliac crest extends through the skin and subcutaneous tissue down to the periosteum. The length of the incision depends on the length of bone graft that will be removed. Harvesting cancellous bone (Fig. 15.2) The periosteum is first incised along the lateral edge of the iliac crest. Then it is incised transversely...

A Sternocostal synchondrosis of the first rib

Lig. the mandibular ramus extending from the mandibular foramen to the spine of the sphenoid bone lateral to the foramen spinosum. B 10 Pterygospinal ligament. Lig. pterygospinale. upper part of the lateral plate of the pterygoid process to the spine of the sphenoid. B 15 Inferior transverse scapular ligament. Lig. transversum scapulae inferius . Weak fibrous band passing from the root of the spine of the scapula to the posterior margin of the glenoid cavity. F

Motor Systems I Pyramidal Primary Motor System

Precentral Gyrus

The motor function is mainly supported by the corticospinal (or pyramidal) tract. The majority of fibers of the pyramidal tract take origin from the precentral gyrus (primary motor area - area 4), and caudal premotor cortex (area 6). The largest amount comes from the axons of the giant pyramidal (or Betz's) neurons located in the V and VI layers of the posterior fifth of the motor cortex. The motor cortex is somatotopically organized, and movements of the hind limb are located in the medial motor cortex (lobulus paracentral, with the foot located caudally, and the hip at the vertex). The trunk is in the upper part of the prerolandic gyrus, followed by the forelimb and the hand. The motor area for the contralateral hand is thicker than the rest of the primary motor cortex and folded therefore it is well recognizable ( omega or epsilon sign). Movements of the face are located successively, closer to the sylvian fissure. During their course, the axons pass through the centrum semiovale,...

Amputated Amphibian and Lizard Tails

Amputation Lizards Tail

Histological and labeling studies have shown that new spinal cord neurons are produced relatively frequently in uninjured juvenile axolotls up to 6-7 months of age, but infrequently in older animals (Holder et al., 1991). Although axons of surviving neurons regenerate in larval and adult urodeles, few or no new neurons are regenerated after transection or ablation of trunk cord (Butler and Ward, 1965 Nordlander and Singer, 1978 Davis et al., 1989). By contrast, the spinal cord of larval and adult urodeles, including new neurons, can be regenerated after amputation of the tail (Clarke and Ferretti, 1998). Urodele spinal cord contains nine groups of neurons, but the fate of each type during either gap replacement regeneration or caudal regeneration from the amputated tail has not been studied (Chernoff et al., 2003). Tail regeneration in larval urodeles is accomplished by the dedifferentiation of cartilage, muscle, and dermal fibroblasts to mesenchymal stem cells (figure 5.24). These...

Family Diplostomatidae

Infection by ingestion of mesocercariae, which are migratory larval forms that develop in tadpoles and frogs. While definitive hosts include canids and felids, other mammals can serve as paratenic or transport hosts in which the meso-cercariae do not develop further. A fatal human case with disseminated organisms was reported from Canada in a young man who died within 9 days of acquiring the infection. Hundreds of mesocercariae were found in his liver, heart, kidney, brain, spleen, spinal cord and peritoneal fluid (Freeman et al., 1976). Intraocular infections have also been reported. The route of infection may be via oral ingestion and migration to the eye or via direct penetration through the conjunctiva (McDonald et al., 1994).

Planning Care Well Exemplary Clinical Microsystems

5ps Nursing Assessment

In this section we provide a brief description of several microsystems that excel at planning care. In planning care the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Spine Center, in Lebanon, New Hampshire, uses a computer with a touch-screen monitor to collect information on each patient's general and disease-specific health status this information then provides a sound basis on which the patient and the clinicians can engage in shared decision making to best match the patient's changing needs with A patient who visits the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Spine Center uses a touch-screen computer that inquires about his or her symptoms, functional status, expectations for care results, and results of past treatment. Clinical staff use a summary of this information to guide the patient's evaluation and treatment. When possible, clinical staff employ additional technology to guide the evaluation and management of the patient's concerns. Most of the care is preplanned for the most common types of spine patient problems. For...

Specification Of Epidermis And Neural Tissue

Droit Dessin

The developing central nervous system becomes subdivided along the AP axis into fore-, mid-, and hindbrain and the spinal cord. Nieuwkoop thought that this regionalization was intimately coupled with the process of neuroecto-derm specification and proposed the existence of posteriorizing signals acting on newly formed neural tissue (Stern, 2005). This hypothesis has been supported by the demonstration that both FGF and Wnt signals function as posteriorizing signals.

Method for orbital exenteration

Complications of exenteration include operative leakage of cerebro-spinal fluid, post operative infection, necrosis of flaps and grafts, or delayed socket granulation. Breakdown of the lamina papyracea may lead to communication between the ethmoid sinuses and the exenteration cavity (a sino-orbital fistula) and failure of closure of the nasolacrimal duct may lead to a blow-hole fistula.

Injury to orbital soft tissues

Treatment of indirect optic neuropathy may be empirically based on the results for spinal cord injury a loading dosage of 30mg kg Methyl-prednisolone within 8 hours of injury is followed by an infusion of about 5mg kg hr for 24 hours after injury. A tailing dosage of prednisolone or dexamethasone may then be continued for a few days.

Potential of Nonregenerating Tissues

Regenerating Cells Muscle

Spinal cord vated or participate in scar tissue formation after injury, indicating that mammals have considerable latent capacity for regeneration that is suppressed (Stocum, 2004b). TABLE 1.2 summarizes the nonregenerating tissues in which stem cells have been found so far. Both the spinal cord and the heart initiate regeneration that is then aborted by inhibitory factors in the injury environment leading to the formation of scar tissue (Chapters 5, 11). Thus, by changing a nonpermissive injury environment to a regeneration-permissive one, we may be able to initiate and or complete the regenerative process. Second, regenerative responses have been induced or enhanced in a number of tissues of experimental animals. Biodegradable, cell-free artificial regeneration templates have been used to induce dermal regeneration in excisional skin wounds and improve regeneration across gaps in peripheral nerves, though the results have been far from perfect (Yannas, 2001). A variety of...

Therapies For Neurodegenerative Diseases

Demyelinating Disease Luxol

Brustle et al. (1999) injected glial precursor cells differentiated in vitro from mouse ESCs into the spinal cord and brain of rats that have the equivalent of a human demyelinating disorder, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease. This disease is caused by a mutation in the X-linked gene for myelin proteolipid protein (PLP). The mouse ESCs were placed in defined medium with FGF-2 and PDGF to produce proliferating glial precursors. These precursor cells were then injected into the spinal cord and brain of seven-day-old myelin-deficient Nistor et al. (2005) developed a reliable protocol for the directed differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursors from human ESC cultures over 42 days, based on signaling molecules known to regulate the survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of cells at various steps of the oligodendrocyte lineage (Grinspan, 2002). The principal components restricting differentiation to the oligodendroglial lineage were insulin, tri-iodothyroidin hormone, FGF,...

Vascular Supply And Innervation Of The Corpora Cavernosa

The penis receives innervation from both autonomic and somatic pathways. Somatosensory perception from the penile skin, urethra, corpora cavernosa and glans penis is mediated by the dorsal penile nerve. It reaches the sacral spinal cord via the pudendal nerve. Somatomotor penile innervation is also mediated by branches of the pudendal nerve, and is responsible for contraction of the ischiocavernosus muscle during the rigid erection phase and the rhythmic contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscle during ejaculation.5 Penile autonomic innervation is responsible for regulating the tone of the cavernous smooth musculature and the intra-cavernous arteriolar smooth muscle. Relaxation of these muscles results in tumescence. While the penis is in the flaccid state, blood flow is limited by the basal tone of these smooth muscles. This tonic contraction is mediated by sympathetic stimulus from the cavernous nerves. The sympathetic pathway originates from the T10 to L2 spinal segments and...

Deep System Cervical Lymph Nodes Proper

Subclavian Triangle Nodes

The deeper fascial structures of the head and neck drain either directly into the deep cervical lymph nodes or through the superficial system first and then into the deep system. These superficial nodes have already been described. The deep cervical lymph nodes proper (Figure 13.1) consist of the junctional nodes, the upper, middle, and lower cervical nodal groups which are situated along the internal jugular vein, the spinal accessory group which accompanies the accessory nerve in the posterior triangle, the nuchal nodes, the visceral nodes in the midline of the neck, and nodes in the upper mediastinum. The junctional nodes represent the confluence of nodes at the junction of the posterior part of the submandibular triangle with the retropharyngeal nodes where they meet at the junction of the upper and middle deep cervical nodes. B Internal Jugular nodes C Spinal accessory nodes D Supraclavicular nodes E Nuchal nodes F Deep medial visceral nodes B Internal Jugular nodes C Spinal...

Purinergic Receptor Channels

The ligand-selectiv-ity profile of cloned P2X2R resembles those found in PC12 cells and several other neuronal types. Northern blot analysis suggests that the P2X2R is expressed in the pituitary, brain, spinal cord, intestine, and vas deferens. Functional P2X2Rs and several of its spliced forms were found in pituitary somatotroph populations. Other subpopulations of anterior pituitary cells express other P2XR subtypes. Unique to P2X5R is the small current, which is only 5-10 of that observed in other channels. The message for this channel is present in lymph node, spleen, and brain tissue. P2X4R RNA is expressed in the spinal cord, lung, thymus, bladder, adrenal, testis, and brain, with a staining pattern that closely mirrored the P2X6R. The P2X7R shows low or no sensitivity to suramin and acid, and is insensitive to the P2X1 and P2X3 agonist a,P-methyl-ene-ATP. The protein of this channel is the largest among P2XRs. In contrast to other channels from...

Factors Influencing Nerve Regeneration

Different Suture Patterns Pictures

The nerve may be avulsed at its origin from the spinal cord or when it comes into contact with the final target (muscle or sensory receptors). These lesions cannot be repaired by means of sutures or grafts. In the case of root avulsion Carlstedt recently proposed the reimplantation of the roots into the spinal chord.14 For the moment this is an experimental technique it has been utilized by Carlstedt only in selected cases and the evaluation of the results is still in progress. Several authors have described the use of adjacent functioning nerve trunks as central donors to be coapted distally to the injured nerves. In these lesions various nerves can be used for neurotization intercostal nerves (generally to reconstruct the musculocutaneous nerve),15 the XI cranial nerve or the cervical plexus,16,17 controlateral C7 root,18 some funiculi of the ulnar nerve for the musculocutaneous nerve.19 We have reported a neurotization technique that is not used for avulsion injuries but rather to...

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Neurochemical Processes

As was previously mentioned, CRF is a critical component in the stress response. In addition to its role in the eventual release of cortisol, CRF itself has been implicated in PTSD pathophysiology. Corticotropin-releasing factor is distributed in numerous brain areas that are involved in stress responding, such as the amygdala, hippocampus, PFC, and LC. Stress increases levels of CRF in the hypothalamus. Bonne et al. (2004) report that exposure to stress early in life can produce long-term elevations in CRF and sensitization of CRF neurons with future stress. Brunson, Avishai-Eliner, Hatalski, and Baram (2001) have implicated CRF elevations in hippocampal damage. Further, research has shown that patients with PTSD have elevations of CRF in their cerebral spinal fluid (Baker et al., 1999).

The Scope Of The Problem In Prostate Cancer

We became aware of the problems of bone mineral density loss when, within the space of 1 year, three of the author's patients suffered hip fractures. We then began to evaluate our patients who were being treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with DEXA scans. Of our 75 patients studied to date, 70 were on leuprolide therapy and five had undergone bilateral orchiectomy.10 All patients underwent an in-office screening DEXA scan utilizing the fourth digit of the nondominant hand. When this proved abnormal, a full table body scan of the hip and spine was performed for comparison. The patients' ages ranged from 46 to 98, with a mean of 76.4. The patients' duration of ADT ranged from just beginning treatment to 13 years on therapy, with an average of 3.35 years. Of the entire series, only 34 (45.4 ) had a normal bone mineral density. Of the 41 patients with abnormal DEXA scans, 25 (61 ) had osteopenia, while 16 (39 , or 21.3 of the entire group of Smith and associates initially...

Surgical Treatment of Female Infertility

Posterior Cul Sac

For treatment purposes, the operation is done under general or spinal anesthesia in the operating room. A solution of glycine 1.5 or sorbitol 3 is used to distend the uterine cavity. The possible complications of hysteroscopy include uterine perforation, bleeding, infection, and fluid overload in the lung or brain. These complications are rarely encountered however severe electrolytes imbalance can be fatal.

Radiological Techniques of Examination

Glottis closes to protect the airway. The oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing are evaluated in the lateral position to avoid overlap with the skull and spine. Peristalsis begins in the cervical esophagus, and the bolus passes inferiorly with a smooth primary stripping wave (Schlesinger and ParkeR 2004). Distal to the cervical esophagus, the esophagus is evaluated in the oblique position and true lateral, thus projecting the esophagus off the spine and avoiding overlap. Gravity helps the esophagus to clear, and infants with poor esophageal motility may benefit by tilting the fluoroscopy table into a more upright position. The distended esophagus has a smooth and regular outline. In its collapsed state, the mucosal folds appear as parallel, longitudinal lines 1-2 mm thick (Fig. 2.3). The esophagram in children should always include the stomach and the duodenum to the level of the duodenojejunal flexure to observe gastric emptying and to document normal bowel rotation....

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