Develop Charisma and Become More Likable
Another characteristic feature of the long-term breeding of cereals, potatoes, or vegetables is the fact that during the long periods the shape and the outer appearance of the plants have changed so much that the original wild types were either lost or no longer easily identified as starting material. A typical example is corn. Modern agricultural crop plants are also bred for very uniform physical appearance, time of flowering, and maturity so that harvest by machines in an industrial manner is possible (examples are cotton, maize, and cereals). It is a feature of our high-yielding agriculture that all possible mechanical techniques are being employed.
Studies of interpersonal attraction and friendship have documented the power of circumstances such as propinquity. In their 1950 book Social Pressures in Informal Groups, Leon Festinger, Stanley Schachter, and Kurt Back reported the friendship preferences of married students living in university housing. Festinger and his colleagues found that the students and their families were most likely to form friendships with others who lived nearby and with whom they had regular contact. Propinquity was a more powerful determinant of friendship than common background or academic major. Propinquity appears to act as an initial filter in social relationships Nearness and contact determine the people an individual meets, after which other factors may affect interpersonal attraction.
The Hendricks provide a thorough review of the processes of affiliation and interpersonal attraction. They include a discussion of issues in relationships, such as separation and divorce, blended families, changing sex roles, and dual-career couples. Yager, Jan. Friendshifts The Power of Friendship and How It Shapes Our Lives. 2d ed. Stamford, Conn. Hannacroix Creek Books, 1999. A practical book on the structures and sustenance of friendships.
Chronologic age (age in number of years) and physiologic age (age in terms of functional capacity) do not always coincide, and physical appearance and health status often do not always correspond to what is typical at a particular chronological age. Although specialized knowledge is not required to estimate age, in many cases, people may look younger or older than their chronologic age. Early attempts were made to standardize functional profiles of old persons, similar to the well-established diagnostic charts of growing children. Yet, these attempts have failed given the characteristic and substantive heterogeneity of aging processes in human populations. Indeed, some individuals show signs of old age at a much slower or faster rate than others and the variability among individuals of the same age in response to a variety of physiologic or psychologic tests increases with old age (Fig. 4).
Another lively presence in the 1920s was Marcus Garvey, a Jamaican-born charismatic black leader. Garvey gathered tremendous support for his black nationalist movement in Harlem and by the time the Clarks arrived, Garvey claimed a huge following of African Americans who responded to his call for black pride and economic independence. In 1920, Garvey led a parade of 50,000 people from throughout the United States, the Caribbean, Central America, and Africa through the streets of Harlem with their banners, uniforms, and colorfully decorated cars. Harlem was a vibrant and vital community in the 1920s, and a place that remained close to Clark's heart throughout his life.
The personality disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) are defined as an enduring pattern of inner experience and behaviour that is pervasive across a wide range of personal and social situations and deviate markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture. The personality disorders that are most frequently encountered in dermatology include Borderline, Narcissistic and Histrionic personality disorders which all fall in the 'Cluster B' (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) category in the DSM-IV and Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (which is categorised in 'Cluster C'). Borderline personality disorder is associated with a pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, affects and self-image, and impulsive behaviours. Such patients are often 'difficult' as their instability in interpersonal relationships and self-image are also manifested in their relationship with their dermatologists and other health care providers. Such patients often try to...
Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome occurs in the twenties, usually consequent to coronary heart disease. The adult form of WS resembles more closely the changes associated with aging, with respect to both the affected individual's physical appearance and the disease pattern. The onset of this premature aging syndrome occurs between the ages of 20 and 30 years, and death ensues a few years from the onset, usually due to cardiovascular disease. Tissue culture studies of fibroblasts in infantile and adult syndromes reveal that the period during which cells replicate shortens, which is interpreted as being supportive of accelerated aging (Chapter 4).
Bocytopenia and bilateral radial aplasia. Babies with TAR often have haemorrhagic manifestations at birth when the diagnosis is usually made, owing to the characteristic physical appearance combined with thrombocytopenia. Additional skeletal (absent ulnae, absent humeri, clinodactyly) and other somatic (microcephaly, hypertelorism, strabismus, heart defects) abnormalities may be seen in some patients.
Interpersonal exploitation, superficial charm, and lack of empathy can be seen in both antisocial personality disorder and narcissistic personality disorder. However, antisocial patients do not require constant admiration nor do they display the envy seen in narcissistic patients. A history of criminal behavior is not typical of narcissism.
A useful meta-analysis of these treatments has recently been carried out by the British National Schizophrenia Guideline Group 109, 110 . In the process, a number of related issues were clarified. The authors identified 19 RCTs comparing family therapy with some other treatment. They were conducted in a wide range of cultural and service contexts. The early studies of intervention showed excellent outcomes, and, overall, the literature confirms these good results. However, in their review, Mari and Streiner 111 suggested that intervention in the more recent studies appears to be less effective. They attributed the apparent decline in effectiveness to the enthusiasm and charisma of the people conducting the earlier studies. However, the diminishing effect of family intervention with time may also be explained by the fact that the later studies involved group treatments of the families, whereas the earlier studies consistently relied on the treatment of individual families. Thus, for...
The brain is subdivided into four major functional areas. The cerebrum, the largest portion of the brain, regulates sensory and motor functions. The convolutions characteristic of the human brain represent the physical appearance of the cerebrum. The brain stem connects the brain with the spinal cord, carrying out both sensory and motor functions. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus, the relay center for sensory functions entering the cerebrum, and the hypothalamus, which controls much of the peripheral nervous system activity and regulates endocrine processes. The fourth portion of the brain is the cerebellum, the rear of the brain where voluntary muscle activity is controlled.
In photographs taken throughout his adult life, Piaget is often shown wearing his characteristic beret, with an engaging smile and horn-rimmed glasses framing his twinkling eyes. He was a tall man who always seemed to have a pipe in hand. In later years, his snow-white hair added to his distinctive appearance. Piaget was a somewhat eccentric and tireless worker fully absorbed in his academic pursuits. He was kind and possessed of enormous charisma, but by some accounts was remote and obsessed with his work.
There are several ways in which the mother-child relationship may be affected by a child with a skin condition. For conditions that are present at birth but were not necessarily expected (e.g. birthmarks or epidermolysis bullosa), the physical appearance of the child's skin can be very distressing. The mother's immediate reaction may well be of shock and she is likely to need some time and possibly support to adjust to this. There is considerable variation between mothers on how they respond to a skin condition, depending on factors related to the appearance of the baby, and the mother's own beliefs and attitudes towards physical appearance (Walters, 1997). Whilst for some mothers, a skin condition can undoubtedly make it harder for her to bond with her child, for mothers who bond well it can lead to an increased feeling of protectiveness towards the child arising out of the need to protect a more 'vulnerable' child. In the long term it is important for the mother to be able to find...
Explanation Oral stage The oral stage of psycho-sexual development begins at birth when the oral cavity is the primary focus of psychosexual energy (libido). The child, of course, preoccupies himself with nursing and receives the pleasure of sucking and accepting things into the mouth. The child who is frustrated at this stage and unable to get his needs met adequately, because his mother refuses to nurse him on demand or who ends nursing sessions early, is characterized by pessimism, envy, suspicion, and sarcasm. The overindulged infant, whose nursing urges were often excessively satisfied, is optimistic, gullible, and is full of admiration for others around him. This stage culminates in the primary conflict of weaning, which both deprives the child of the sensory pleasures of nursing and of the psychological pleasure of being cared for, mothered, and held. This stage lasts approximately one and one-half years.
Surgery or hormone therapy is recommended to maximize the child's chances for fertility, improve his physical appearance, and decrease the chance of injury to the testes. Since there is a slight risk of later malignancy associated with undescended testes successful hormone therapy or surgical placement into the scrotum offers the opportunity for examination of the testis. Surgery should be done early in childhood because of the changes that occur in undescended testicles due to higher body temperature when not in the scrotum. Treatment may decrease the chance of malignancy and increase the chance for fertility.
Illustrations of the rabies virus particle (or virion) typically depict the bullet-shaped or bacilliform morphology that is the structural hallmark of all rhabdo-viruses (Fig. 1). The physical appearance of this rigid, rodlike, often cone-shaped or bullet-shaped structure of the rabies virion, with one end flattened (planar) and the other rounded (hemispherical), was first described in the early 1960s with the aid of the electron microscope (EM) (Matsumoto, 1962, 1963 Davies et al., 1963). Subsequently, EM studies have shown rabies virions attached to cells, gaining entry into cells, and budding from cellular membranes (Hummeler et al., 1967 Murphy et al., 1973b, 1980 Iwasaki et al., 1973, 1975 Iwasaki and Clark, 1975 Matsumoto, 1975). Schematic illustrations of the rabies virus that depict
In 1994, writer Richard Noll published a book entitled The Jung Cult, in which he described Jung as a pseudo-charismatic figure who established a secret church with himself as chief priest. In 1998, Peter Kramer, the psychiatrist-author of Listening to Prozac, said in an interview that Jung was very comfortable in the role of an idol, even as a secular religious leader. Jung was much more invested in his own omniscience than Freud. Kramer went on to say that people in the early years of the twentieth century were much more likely to attribute unusual mental powers to intellectual pioneers than they are now, and they were more likely to believe that such geniuses were entitled to special privileges.
Two additional criticisms must be mentioned. Jung's notion of God as incorporating a dark or underground side within his being, and thus being beyond conventional concepts of good and evil, has obvious dangers for people who are attracted to charismatic leaders. It is not difficult for a leader with a sufficiently forceful or attractive personality to convince troubled or insecure people to accept the leader's redefinitions of goodness. The revelation of the extent of sexual abuse of parishioners by clergy in mainstream religious bodies over the last two decades, as well as the abuse of members of smaller groups by cult leaders, has led to the drafting of much stricter codes of ethics for clergy, as well as for psychiatrists and psychotherapists. Buddhist groups in the United States have also put in place institutional safeguards against misunderstandings or abuses of teacher disciple relationships.
Indeed, the mother-child relationship may be affected by a child with a skin condition and the considerable variation between mothers with respect to how they respond to a skin condition depends on factors related to the appearance of the baby but also the mother's own beliefs and attitudes concerning skin diseases and physical appearance (Walters, 1997). Some mothers can react to the illness by exhibiting overprotection and overindulgence of the child whereas others can feel that the condition impinges on their ability to bond with their child and can lead to great distress. Furthermore, the recent development of the Illness Perception Questionnaire for children shows that the way that children represent their skin condition is also of considerable importance (Walker et al., 2004).
Beyond easing fear and satisfying the need for information or social comparison, mere affiliation with others is not usually a satisfactory form of interaction. Most people form specific attractions for other individuals, rather than being satisfied with belonging to a group. These attractions usually develop into friendship, love, and other forms of intimacy. Interpersonal attraction, the experience of preferring to interact with specific others, is influenced by several factors. An important situational or circumstantial factor in attraction is propinquity. Propinquity refers to the proximity or nearness of other persons. Research by Festinger and his colleagues has confirmed that people are more likely to form friendships with those who live nearby, especially if they have frequent accidental contact with them. Matching implies the importance of similarity. Similarity of attitudes, values, and background is a powerful influence on interpersonal attraction. People are more likely to...
Cognitively appearance-altering, cutaneous conditions can have a profound effect on self-concept and on body image. Any minor deformity or disfigurement can contribute to the development of heightened body awareness. Cutaneous conditions can often have a progressive and episodic course making it necessary for the patient to adapt to changes in physical appearance. Hence, patients must not only learn to cope with the challenges of living with an appearance that deviates from the norm but also to adapt to a changing body image. That is, skin disease patients must develop and maintain a sense of self-esteem without relying upon physical attractiveness. This is an extremely difficult task given the fact that the robust relationship between self-esteem and body image has been underscored in numerous studies (Papadopoulos et al., 2002).
By the 1920s, the field of psychology had already captured the public's attention. Given Watson's charisma, personal charm, persuasiveness, and message of hope, Americans were enthralled by what one writer called an outbreak of psychology. Much of the public was convinced that psychology provided a path to health, happiness, and prosperity. Psychological advice columns sprouted up in the pages of the daily newspapers. Watson's behaviorism was the first stage in the evolution of the behavioral school of thought. The second stage, sometimes referred to as neobehav-iorism, can be dated from about 1930 to about 1960 and includes the work of Edward Tolman, Clark Hull, and B. F. Skinner.
Appoint charismatic people rather than technical superstars to lead creative teams. The same studies indicate that it makes sense to appoint charismatic people rather than technical superstars to lead creative teams. Technical expertise is important in R&D Managers but not as essential as being able to inspire, motivate and energise research staff. Charismatic leaders demonstrate the following characteristics.
The years between 1917 and 1921 were full of turmoil for German academics. In 1918, the Kaiser abdicated and fled to the Netherlands as the German army was defeated in France. Part of the Kaiser's former palace was used to house the University of Berlin, and the Psychological Institute was given several rooms to use for lectures and research. In 1921 Lewin was appointed a Privatdozent or university lecturer, but this position did not carry a salary Privatdozenten were paid directly by their students. Lewin was well liked by his students, however, as he was much less formal than most European academics and encouraged his students to develop their own ideas. It was during this period also that Lewin began to add
The relationships among the needs are more subtle, and perhaps more variable, at higher levels of the hierarchy. In particular, the need for love and the need for esteem might be interchangeable at times. Some people seem to be willing to tolerate loneliness, as well as other discomforts, in order to do work that they can take pride in. Others are willing to sacrifice fame and the admiration of others in order to be with someone they love. The choices made by people who are operating at this level of need satisfaction might also be influenced by the beginnings of a need for self-actualization, as they start to feel a need to develop their talents and realize their potential.
Omnipresent dangers in the study of social behavior are the closely allied traps of teleology and unwitting anthropomorphism. Teleology, or the doctrine of final causes, infers purpose in nature (e.g., to infer the existence of a creator from the works of creation). The teleological conviction that mind and will are the cause of all things in nature is not within the scope of scientific method (Romanes 1881). In the context of animal behavior, teleological explanation would name and account for a behavior by its presumed ultimate effect (e.g., appeasement, submission, or punishment) and not by its proximate causes or physical appearance. It may be convenient to label as punishment the category of attack launched by a dominant meerkat on the only member of her group not to join in a fight with territorial trespassers. The danger lies in (inadvertently) interpreting the functional nuance of this convenient label as the proximate cause of the attacker's behavior. We know only that one...
Theories of interpersonal attraction attempt to specify the conditions that lead people to like, and in some cases love, each other. Attraction is a two-way process, involving not only the person who is attracted but also the attractor. The major theories addressing interpersonal attraction have a common theme reinforcement. The principle of reinforcement is one of the most basic notions in all of psychology. Put simply, it states that behaviors that are followed by desirable consequences (often these take the form of rewards) tend to be repeated. Applied to interpersonal relations, this principle suggests that when one person finds something rewarding in an interaction with another person (or if that person anticipates some reward in a relationship that has not yet been established), then the person should desire further interaction with that other individual. In behavioral terms, this is what is meant by the term interpersonal attraction, which emerges in everyday language in such...
Within a negative environment, children experience fear and anger, but they also feel weak and helpless beside more powerful adults. They recognize that expressing hostility directly might be dangerous and result in parental reprisals or loss of love. As a result, children repress legitimate anger, banishing it to the unconscious. By using the defense mechanism of reaction formation, they develop emotions toward parents that are the opposite of anger, and they experience feared parents as objects of admiration. Children unconsciously turn their inner fears and anger against themselves and lose touch with their real selves. As a result, they develop basic anxiety, or the feeling of being alone and defenseless in a world that seems hostile.
Research on propinquity combined with other studies of interpersonal attraction in the 1960's and 1970's. Friendship and love are challenging topics to study because they cannot be re-created in a laboratory setting. Studies of personal relationships are difficult to conduct in natural settings if people know they are being observed while they talk or date, they behave differently or leave the scene. Natural or field studies are also less conclusive than laboratory research because it is not always clear which factors have produced the feelings or actions that can be observed.
The Power Of Charisma
You knowthere's something about you I like. I can't put my finger on it and it's not just the fact that you will download this ebook but there's something about you that makes you attractive.