Introduction

Since the first commercially prepared infant formulas were available as powders in the late 1800s, constant improvement in the formulation has been done to match the composition of human milk more closely and, most importantly, to mimic the functional outcome of breast-fed infants (i.e., appropriate growth, development and health). In this context, the development of infant formula

Table 1. Standards for protein content in infant formulas

Institutions/associations

g protein/100 kcal

Year of issue

Food and Drug Administration [54]

1.8-4.5

1985

Codex [55]

1.8-4.0a

1981

1.8-3.0b

under revision

European Economy Community [56]

1.8-3.0

1991

Committee on Nutrition of the American

1.8-4.5

1976

Academy of Pediatrics [57]

European Society for Pediatric

1.8-2.8

1977

Gastroenterology and Nutrition [58, 59]

1.8-3.0b

2005

aFollow-on formula (1989): 3.0-5.5g protein/100kcal. bStarter and follow-on formulas.

aFollow-on formula (1989): 3.0-5.5g protein/100kcal. bStarter and follow-on formulas.

with optimized protein quality and quantity has been, and still is, the subject of intense investigation.

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