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Single Parenting Becoming the Best Parent For Your Child

Single Parenting Becoming the Best Parent For Your Child

Parenting is a challenging task. As a single parent, how can you juggle work, parenting, and possibly college studies single handedly and still manage to be an ideal parent for your child? Read the 65-page eBook Single Parenting Becoming The Best Parent For Your Child to find out how. Loaded with tips, it can inspire, empower, and instruct you to successfully face the challenges of parenthood.

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Smart Parenting Guide

This ebook from Daniel Dwase gives you the very best tips and information about how to raise your children in such a way as to get smart, responsible, caring, and loving children. If you have problems disciplining your children, this is the book for you. You don't have to be concerned about your children running amok; Dwase gives you the insight that you need to make sure that your children turn out well in the end. This ebook lets you give your child the best gift that you ever could: a loving, nurturing, healthy and loving childhood. By building a quality relationship with them, you will be able to raise a child that continues that relationship into adulthood. Building a quality relationship is the best way to give your child a healthy future and a loving family. You will both empower your child to succeed and reduces behavioral problems Start building your child's future today!

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The impact of skin disease on the motherchild relationship

There are several ways in which the mother-child relationship may be affected by a child with a skin condition. For conditions that are present at birth but were not necessarily expected (e.g. birthmarks or epidermolysis bullosa), the physical appearance of the child's skin can be very distressing. The mother's immediate reaction may well be of shock and she is likely to need some time and possibly support to adjust to this. There is considerable variation between mothers on how they respond to a skin condition, depending on factors related to the appearance of the baby, and the mother's own beliefs and attitudes towards physical appearance (Walters, 1997). Whilst for some mothers, a skin condition can undoubtedly make it harder for her to bond with her child, for mothers who bond well it can lead to an increased feeling of protectiveness towards the child arising out of the need to protect a more 'vulnerable' child. In the long term it is important for the mother to be able to find...

Social justice and social responsibility A career ethic

In 1946 the Clarks founded the Northside Child Development Center in Harlem. They received financial assistance from Phipps-Clark's parents, and volunteer commitments from psychologists and social workers. The center was the first full-time child guidance center in Harlem to offer psychiatric, psychological, and casework services to children and families. One particular contribution was the Center's intelligence testing services, which provided evidence to counter the public schools' misplacement of minority children in programs for the mentally retarded. Phipps-Clark served as Center Director until her retirement in 1979.

Expert testimony at the Supreme Court

In 1950 Clark prepared the report Effect of Prejudice and Discrimination on Personality Development for the Mid-Century White House Conference on Children and Youth, summarizing his and his wife's work, and reviewing available literature from other researchers on the psychological effects of segregation. The material became the basis for his first book, Prejudice and Your Child. The Clarks were soon recognized as experts in the field, and were called upon by the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund to testify in several court cases challenging segregation in public schools.

Articulating the principles of democracy

During his long tenure as a professor of psychology at City College, City University of New York, Clark continued to articulate his theories and to work to counter the negative effects of prejudice and discrimination. His book Prejudice and Your Child, published in 1955, was an attempt to provide parents with a clear understanding of the nature of racial prejudices and the effects of these prejudices upon American society in general and upon the personality development of children. Prejudice and Your Child has been called a how-to manual for parents concerned about raising children who will grow up freed from the damages of racist thinking and behavior.

Intendedness of Pregnancy and Preterm Delivery

It is estimated that approximately 60 percent of all pregnancies are unintended, and of these, about half end in a live birth (IOM, 1995). Women with unintended pregnancies are less likely to seek early prenatal care (Bitto et al., 1997 IOM, 1995 Kost et al., 1998 Pagnini and Reichman, 2000) and are more likely to use alcohol or tobacco (IOM, 1995). They also appear to be more likely to experience high levels of exposure to psychosocial stress and depressive symptoms (Orr and Miller, 1997). Although unintended pregnancies occur among women across the sociodemographic spectrum, they are disproportionately likely among mothers who are adolescent, unmarried, or over age 40 (Bitto et al., 1997 IOM, 1995). The child of an unwanted pregnancy (as opposed to the child of a wanted or a mistimed pregnancy) is at greater risk of low birth weight, death in the first year of life, abuse, and receiving insufficient resources for optimal early child development (IOM, 1995). Additional consequences...

Nonuniformity Correction

Analysis of group-mapped images provides a way of combining the ability of ROIs to be spatially specific (and thus sensitive) with the ability of histograms to be unbiased. In essence, a set of ROIs is automatically generated at locations across the whole brain, without any bias in where they are located. The image datasets are first spatially normalized to all lie in the same space. Appropriate statistical tests are then carried out on all the ROIs. The technique has been used in studies of child development (Paus et al., 1999), aging (Good et al., 2oo1), schizophrenia (Foong et al., 2oo1 Shapleske et al., 2oo2) and dementia (Scahill et al., 2oo2) (See Figure 2.16 (Plate 1)).

Theories In Action

The volatile issues of racism, racial identity, and equal protection of the law came dramatically to the forefront in the second half of the twentieth century. These issues continue to be the subject of research and public debate in the twenty-first century. The pioneering work of early social psychologists such as Kenneth Bancroft Clark and Mamie Phipps-Clark remains relevant today. It provides a starting point for continued investigations into how children develop a healthy personal and social identity and self-esteem in an increasingly multicultural environment and what the proper role of social science is in helping to inform effective public policy change that will bring about social justice and harmony in a diverse and endangered world.

Types of Statistical Analysis

Examples of voxel-based group mapping. (a) Child development shown by white matter correlations with age. (b) Aging shown by grey matter correlations with age (the bar shows the T score). (c) Gender difference in perfusion measured by arterial spin labelling. (a) Reprinted with permission from Paus, T., et al., in Science 283 (5409), 1908-1911, Copyright 1999 American Association for the Advancement & Science. (b) Reprinted from Good, C. D., et al. 2001, in Neuroimage. 14, 21-36, Copyright 2001 with permission from Elsevier Science Ltd. (c) Reprinted with permission from Parkes, L. M., Rashid, W., Chard, D. and Tofts, P. S. 2003. (submitted) Figure 2.16 (Plate 1). Examples of voxel-based group mapping. (a) Child development shown by white matter correlations with age. (b) Aging shown by grey matter correlations with age (the bar shows the T score). (c) Gender difference in perfusion measured by arterial spin labelling. (a) Reprinted with permission from Paus,...

The evolution of identity

Raising unbiased kids is an outcome of diversity education that begins in the home, according to Derek S. Hopson and Darlene Powell Hopson. The Hopsons are authors of the book Teaching Your Children to be Successful in a Multicultural Society. They suggest that positive and realistic interactions with others are a necessary part of preventing racial distrust, conflict, aggression, and violence.

Institutional Level Strategies

Finally the facility must be accessible. Hours of operation should be flexible. Perhaps the facility could stay open late one evening a week. Child care may be necessary for parents who have to bring their children with them to appointments. Transportation needs should be considered a necessary aspect of medical services. When possible, services should be located within the community in which consumers reside. Friendly reminders of appointments may also be helpful and convey to the consumer that his or her attendance is important.

Eriksons Shift to the Psychosocial Level

The significance of this shift from the psychosexual level of development to the psychosocial one was enormous, but it can best be appreciated in the context of its depiction of each of the particular stages. One other impact was also strikingly noteworthy. Whereas Freud's theory of psychosexual development saw the process as coming to an end with the person's arrival at the genital stage (with puberty), Erikson realized that the growth of the ego in psychosocial development does not end there but continues in subsequent stages throughout the person's life. In that way, he also transformed developmental psychology from its origins as merely a child psychology into a truly life-span psychology, a revision now widely accepted.

Helminthic infections Plate

In the past, only heavy worm burdens have been associated with significant morbidity. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that lower worm burdens are associated with demonstrable clinical effects such as growth retardation, anaemia and possibly a detrimental effect on cognition and educational achievement. The fact that school children are a captive population provides an excellent opportunity to deliver mass treatments through an existing infrastructure. It has been demonstrated that in many countries of the developing world the education sector can deliver a simple health package including health education antihelminthics to millions of school children aged 5-14 years. These programmes will not only benefit the treated individual, but should also reduce overall levels of transmission, since this is the age group that is the major contributor to infection. The Partnership in Child Development aims at improving the health and education of school-age children in developing...

Predictions Learning Emotion and Behavior

What neurobiology adds to psychoanalytic theory is that events and their emotional significance may not be available to memory and consciousness, not because of neurotic defenses, such as repression or disavowal, but because of the immaturity of the child's brain at the time of the event. Additionally, the enduring nature of these responses may reflect not only powerful psychological defenses, but also the powerful neural circuits that are formed in the small and dependent child's brain, which are more resistant to change, despite years of excellent psychotherapeutic work. When such a patient is perpetually anxious in intimate situations or perpetually finds him or herself drawn to people who emotionally deprive them, I find it useful to explain some of the neurobiology of learning in the context of parent-child relationships. This can help to reduce some of the bad feelings a patient has about themself, since they often feel childish, stupid, and ashamed of the tenacity of their...

Implications for Psychoanalysis Concluding Remarks

Psychoanalysis emphasizes that painful and conflicted aspects of childhood can be unconsciously repeated in current relationships, in ways that are maladaptive for current functioning. Psychoanalytic treatment involves examining this unconscious repetition within the transference relationship. Psychoanalysts are often criticized for being too preoccupied with a patient's childhood. These skeptics have difficulty in accepting that an emotionally distressing problem with a parent that happened so long ago, in childhood, can still affect the person as an adult. Yet by contrast these same skeptics often have no difficulty accepting the many everyday ways in which childhood relationships with parents can lead to permanent changes in the way a person lives their life. Parents teach children how to tie their shoes, brush their teeth, cultural values, morals, and social rules such as waiting one's turn to speak, or saying please and thank you. Such teaching often lasts a person's lifetime.

Temporal Considerations

The outlook for identity crises is difficult to forecast. The psychological moratorium will continue to be an important process. Given the constant change in American society, the moratorium options available for youth may be more restricted, or more ambiguous and less stable. This scenario is more probable for humanistic moratoria as society moves toward more institutional structure in the form of schools taking on increased responsibility for the socialization of children and youth. The provision of child care before and after school is one example of the school's increased role. The erosion which has occurred in family structure presents another problem for identity crisis resolution.

Conceptualization and Measurement of Social Support

Social support can be defined (and subsequently measured) along several dimensions. There are several topologies for conceptualizing support (Stroebe & Stroebe, 1997). Support existence is the presence or absence of a supportive relationship. Network structure concerns the providers of support. Type or content of social support refers to the function support provides. Questions pertaining to existence center around whether or not there is social support. Does social support exist Is there an interpersonal relationship Network structure is the set of relationships within which the recipient functions. Who are the providers of support Social support may be personal or impersonal, provided by friends, relatives, and associates. Social support may be formal or informal. Type or content of social support refers to the type or the nature of social support and may include emotional, cognitive, and material support. Providing persons with information about a therapy regimen would be a form...

Sources for Further Study

Duska, Ronald F., and Mariellen Whelan. Moral Development A Guide toPiaget and Kohlberg. New York Paulist Press, 1975. Presents Jean Piaget's theory and its implications for Lawrence Kohlberg's expansion into his own theory of moral development. All of the moral stories used by Piaget and Kohlberg in their research are replicated in this book. Also includes research findings and ways in which to apply these theories to everyday situations in teaching children. This book can be read easily by the high school or college student.

Prevention And Control

In endemic areas, where the force of infection is high, the age-prevalence profile is similar to that seen for other common worm infections, such as Trichuris trichiura or Ascaris umbricoides. There may be some merit in incorporating control of S. stercora is infection in school-based control programmes for helminths, e.g. the Partnership for Child Development. In this case the drug of choice would be albendazole, which is effective against more worm species than ivermectin (Marti et a ., 1996). Evidence from mass treatment of S. stercora is infection and what we know of the biology of the parasite (general low force of infection) suggests that the rates of reinfection among school children would be low. Therefore, it is expected that there would be a community-wide benefit from the treatment of school children.

Types of Support and Link These Types with Network Members

The goal of the second exercise was for members to understand the different types of support and how a particular type of support can be linked to a specific need. The categories of emotional, informational, and material types of support provided good distinctions (see chapter 5). Emotional support can be defined as being listened to, receiving encouragement and praise, and feeling loved and cared for. Informational support can be defined as receiving information or learning something, acquiring knowledge and advice. Material support can be defined as receiving something tangible, such as money, transportation, or help with child-care. Participants can demonstrate their understanding of different types of support by giving examples of different types of support. The facilitators may provide examples sharing a job lead (informational support), writing a letter (material support), and getting encouragement (emotional support). When participants have a clear understanding of the types of...

Stimuli Adaptations for Survival

Knowing what kinds and intensities of stimuli the human sense organs can detect suggests what stimuli have been important for human survival furthermore, the way the brain perceives those stimuli says something about their role. Most stimuli that are perceived positively are, in fact, good for people food tastes and smells good because without some kind of psychological inducement to eat, people would not survive. Stimuli that are perceived negatively are those that people need to avoid the fact that rotting foods smell bad is the brain's way of keeping one from eating something that might make one sick. To give an example from another sensory modality, most adults find the sound of a crying baby bothersome in order to stop the sound, they address the needs of the infant. Cooing and laughing are rewards that reinforce good parenting.

Further research challenges

The vast majority of QoL research published in dermatology relates to adults. Although there are several general dermatology measures and several hundred publications describing their use, the information relating to QoL research in children is much less comprehensive. In contrast to the very widespread use of the adult DLQI (Lewis & Finlay, 2004), there are currently only 13 full articles and 21 abstracts describing the use of the CDLQI, the first children-specific dermatology measure (, 2004). There are considerable difficulties in designing QoL measures for children, both because of rapidly changing levels of children's understanding and because of changing daily activities as children develop. There are important challenges in this field.

Conceptual Challenges to Creating Effective Treatment and Reentry Programs for Women

It is reasonable to suggest that current methods for reducing rearrest figures are not successful. Many of the women who are in prison are the sole support of their families. Their children suffer while they are in jail, and when they get out they have fewer resources than they had when they were arrested. They haven't learned a lesson they have little choice or incentive to do anything but return to the behavior for which they were arrested. The lesson they are passing on to their children is a continuing cycle of abandonment and hopelessness. Removing nonviolent offenders doesn't make the community safer, it weakens the community. These women need health care, drug treatment, and mental health treatment, as well as job training and parenting skills.

Barriers to Education

Many college students, particularly older students who are returning to school, struggle with balancing schoolwork with other responsibilities, such as jobs, children, and household chores. People on limited incomes often have fewer resources available to address these challenges, such as lack of funds to pay for child care. Among the general population, fewer than 50 of high school seniors entering college go on to complete a bachelor's degree, and overall community college dropout rates also exceed 50 . Clearly, postsec-ondary education can be a daunting task for many people, regardless of illness or disability (Adelman, 2004 Mowbray, 1999).

Misuse of reinforcement

Another criticism of reinforcement argues that certain behaviors should be performed by individuals in society regardless of the rewards or reinforcements that are associated. Appropriate behavior, such as responsible parenting, civil duties, altruistic help, and many others, should be expected as the norm for community behavior and not depend on bribery or the enticement of a reward. Skinner would respond by saying that reinforcements or rewards are always being used in daily living, whether individuals are consciously aware of them or not. Even if explicit rewards are not given, internal reinforcement may be present. Self-praise, or feelings of self-esteem from doing well at a chosen task, could provide a form of reinforcement.

Compare Alexithymia And Coping Style Between People With Ms And Other People

Infant physical attractiveness as an elicitor of differential parenting behaviours. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development, Boston. Cited in Walters, E. (1997). Problems faced by children and families living with visible differences. In R. Lansdown, N. Rumsey, E. Bradbury, T. Carr, & J. Partridge (Eds), Visibly Different Coping with Disfigurement. Oxford Butterworth-Heinemann.

Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy

Operation Port Transplant

10 of their annual income, experience significant pain, and pay out-of-pocket expenses for travel, housing, and child care. Prolonged recuperative time, pain, and cosmetic results are, therefore, disincentives to traditional live kidney donation. Thus, the laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy was specifically designed to address the significant financial and logistical disincentives to open live kidney donation.

Examples of Psychopathology

It is normal for someone to feel anxious on occasion. Generalized anxiety disorder is diagnosed when a person engages in excessive worry about all sorts of things and feels anxious and tense much of the time. Most people who have this disorder function quite well. They can do well at work, have good relationships, and be good parents. It is the fact that they suffer so much from their anxiety that leads to a diagnosis. In contrast, schizophrenia can be completely debilitating. Many people with schizophrenia cannot hold a job, are hospitalized frequently, have difficulty in relationships, and are incapable of good parenting. Common symptoms of schizophrenia include delusions (a system of false beliefs, such as believing there is a vast conspiracy among extraterrestrrial beings to control the government) hallucinations (seeing things that are not there or hearing voices that other people cannot hear) incoherence (talking in a way that no one can understand) or emotions that are...

People with Mental Illness as Parents

Parents with a serious mental illness face the challenges that every other parent faces, often have the additional burden of being a single parent, and, in addition, they have specific, unique challenges associated with having a severe and persistent mental illness. Some of the universal challenges of parenthood include the economic burdens of caring for children, the need to develop and apply new skills to provide effective childrearing, and the need for social support from the extended family, their own parents, or friends who can provide advice, encouragement, and emotional support for their efforts. Parents with mental illness face these same challenges, often exacerbated by their mental illness, poverty, and social isolation. For example, people with mental illness face particularly serious economic challenges, particularly if they are dependent on public benefits, which are barely adequate for their own support, let alone those of dependent children. Many individuals, because of...

Dissociative Identity Disorder DSM code 30014

There exist a limited number of research studies that seek to explain the causes of dissociation in certain individuals and predict what persons are vulnerable to the development of dissociative amnesia or fugue during periods of trauma or overwhelming stress. The psychodynamic explanation emphasizes the use of repression as a defense against conscious awareness of the stressful or traumatic event. Entire chunks of the person's identity or past experiences are split from the conscious mind as a way to avoid painful memories or conflicts. According to this explanation, some individuals are vulnerable to the use of dissociation because of their early childhood experiences of trauma or abuse. With the early experience of abuse, the child learns to repress the memories or engage in a process of self-hypnosis. The hypnotic state permits the child to escape the stress associated with the abuse or neglect. The abused child feels a sense of powerlessness in the face of repeated abuse and...

Guided Mastery Experiences

Tasks (i.e., where there is a job opening). Supportive others can provide material resources (i.e., transportation to an interview appointment or child-care assistance). Finally, supportive others can provide affirmation of one's worth and competence especially during stressful times. Such affirmation is critical to continuing goal-directive behaviors, especially following periods of failure.

Philosophy The constructivists vision

I think that knowledge is a matter of constant, new construction, by its interaction with reality and that it is not preformed. There is a continuous creativity. As a constructivist, part of the philosophical school of structuralism, Piaget understood learning as an active process in which new ideas or concepts are constructed based on current or past knowledge. The individual selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure that provides meaning and organization to the experiences. For Piaget, constructivism means that an individual always and only learns through constructing. He maintained that biological maturation provides the range of potential for cognitive growth, but developing the ability to perform operations requires an active, supportive environment and social interactions that encourage children to construct their own knowledge. Piaget also understood that there is no...

Radical Behaviorism and Complex Human Behavior

Behaviorism's analysis of verbal behavior is directly related to the more complex forms of human behavior, often referred to as higher mental processes. For example, radical behaviorism views thinking as an activity derived from talking out loud. Parents and teachers encourage children to talk to themselves, initially by encouraging whispering, then moving the lips as in speaking but without making sounds. What results, then, is talking privately, in our own heads. In a similar fashion, a parent asks a child to think before you act and a teacher asks learners to think through the solution to a problem in mathematics or ethics. The social environment thus encourages people to think, often shows them how to do so, and then reinforces them for doing so when the overt results of their thinking are praised or given high scores.

Principal Publications

Child Care and the Growth of Love, 2nd ed. London Penguin, 1965. With S. M. Bell. Attachment, Exploration, and Separation Illustrated by the behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation. Child Development 41 49-67, 1970. In addition to the APA awards, Ainsworth was bestowed with numerous honors, awards, and official appointments throughout her career, including Distinguished Contribution Award, Maryland Psychological Association (1973) President of the Society for Research in Child Development (1977-79) Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, Virginia Psychological Association (1983) Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, Division 12, APA (1984) G. Stanley Hall Award, Division 7, APA (1984) Salmon Lecturer, Salmon Committee on Psychiatry and Mental Hygiene, New York Academy of Medicine (1984) William T. Grant Lecturer in Behavioral Pediatrics, Society for Behavioral Pediatrics (1985) Award for Distinguished Contributions to Child Development Research,...

Pretransplant Coordinators Role

Most transplant centers require 3 months of follow-up care before transferring patients to the referring physician for continued care. Some transplant centers continue lifelong follow-up. Patients often travel hours for their appointments, which is important to patients who must rely on others for transportation and child care arrangements, or who have financial constraints. Patients with drug- and alcohol-dependence problems are referred to the appropriate team member for rehabilitation prior to transplant.

Responses to Freudian Theory

The theory of psychosocial development of Erik Erikson (1902-1994) occupies a position between orthodox psychoanalysis and neoanalytic schools of thought. His theory builds upon the basic concepts and tenets of Freudian psychology by illustrating the influential role of social and cultural forces in personality development. Erikson's observations of infants and investigations of the parent-child relationship in various societies contributed to his development of the model of the eight stages of human development. He proposes that personality unfolds over the entire life cycle according to a predetermined plan. As an individual moves through this series of stages, he or she encounters periods of vulnerability that require him or her to resolve crises of a social nature and develop new abilities and patterns of behavior. Erikson's eight psychosocial stages not only parallel Freud's psychosexual ones but, more important, have contributed immensely to recent thought in developmental...

Individual Level Strategies

One helpful strategy is the creation of self-help consumer groups. Professionals can be helpful in this process by proving administrative support such as a place to meet and other necessary resources (i.e., transportation assistance if needed, child care, etc.), but the group should be consumer directed.

A theoretical framework for skin disease what do patients know about their own skin disorder

Indeed, the mother-child relationship may be affected by a child with a skin condition and the considerable variation between mothers with respect to how they respond to a skin condition depends on factors related to the appearance of the baby but also the mother's own beliefs and attitudes concerning skin diseases and physical appearance (Walters, 1997). Some mothers can react to the illness by exhibiting overprotection and overindulgence of the child whereas others can feel that the condition impinges on their ability to bond with their child and can lead to great distress. Furthermore, the recent development of the Illness Perception Questionnaire for children shows that the way that children represent their skin condition is also of considerable importance (Walker et al., 2004).

Women of Freudian psychology

Sigmund Freud's words, written to his friend Wilhelm Fleiss (also his cocaine-supplier) in 1895 upon the birth of his daughter Anna show the bias encountered by early female psychologists. From birth, Anna had a poor relationship with her mother and siblings, describing herself as not part of them, but not her famous father. Early in life, Anna became her father's favored child and showed herself to be brilliant. She was self-taught for the most part as she hated school, but availed herself of the many members of the intelligentsia that frequented the Freud household. (In her teens she spoke five languages.) At 14, she wrote to her father I have read some of your books, but you should not be horrified by that, for I am already grown up and so it is no surprise that I am interested. Her father's possessiveness and her total loyalty to him kept her tied to him, and she never strayed very far from his rigid beliefs. Anna taught in England, wrote several books, and together with Melanie...

Teaching machines and programmed instruction

Skinner's analysis of how to design sequences of steps for teaching came to him as he was finishing a book on which he had worked, on and off, for 20 years. He eventually named the book Verbal Behavior. Published in 1957, it was an analysis of why people speak, write, and think the way they do. It took another 20 years before researchers used Skinner's categories and found that the different controlling variables he postulated were, indeed, independent. His work in this area has contributed significantly to establishing methods of teaching children, especially those with autism, to communicate effectively.

Early Infant and Childhood Interventions

Several longitudinal studies have attempted to ascertain the effects of early intervention on the emotional, physical, and developmental outcomes in children born preterm or with disabilities. The Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP) is a multicentered, randomized, controlled, U.S. nationwide study of preterm infants born in 1985 at gestational ages of less than 37 weeks and with birth weights of less than 2,500 grams and their families. Infants and their families were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n 377) or the follow-up-only (FUO) group (n 608) within two birth weight strata less than 2,000 grams and 2,000 to 2,499 grams. For their first 3 years, both groups received medical, developmental, and social assessments, as well as referrals for services such as health care. An educational intervention for infants and families in the intervention group consisted of home visits (weekly during the first year and every other week thereafter), enrollment in a...

Other criticisms of Freud and psychoanalysis

As more has been learned about child development since Freud's theories were first launched, there has been an increasing lack of support for some of his assumptions about the human personality. Perhaps none of his ideas have met with as much criticism as his psychosexual stages of development. While many modern-day clinicians still find aspects of his stages helpful, most do not adhere to the presupposition of sexual conflict being the central task of developmental maturity. Thus, concepts like Oedipal and Electra complexes are held by a very small minority of professionals overall.

Impact Of Preterm Birth On Families

In summary, the limited evidence presented here suggests that caring for a child born pre-term has negative and positive impacts on the family that change over time, that these impacts extend to adolescence and are influenced by different environmental factors across time, and that many areas of family well-being are affected. However, because of the limitations of these studies, further research is needed. First, these findings are limited in their generalizability because of a lack of ethnic and socioeconomic diversity in the samples and because a higher proportion of mothers than fathers were surveyed. Research should strive to balance these sociodemographic factors in the samples used. Second,,the measures used to determine the effects of a child born prematurely on the family and the child's functional health were not uniform across studies. For example, the effects on the family were measured as the economic burden, parental symptomatology, and parenting stress, among others....

Major depressive disorder

Depression is encountered in a wide range of other dermatological disorders (Panconesi, 1984 Gupta & Gupta, 1996 Woodruff et al., 1997 Picardi et al., 2000 Gupta & Gupta, 2003 Picardi et al., 2004 Sampogna et al., 2004). Depression may modulate pruritus perception in other pruritic skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria in addition to psoriasis (Gupta et al., 1994). Higher anxiety and depressive symptoms (Ullman et al., 1977 Hashiro & Okumura, 1998 Kiebert et al., 2002 Zachariae et al., 2004) have been reported in patients with atopic dermatitis. The anxiety may be the feature of an underlying depressive illness in some of these patients. Chronic intractable eczema during childhood may be a sign of a disturbed parent child relationship (Koblenzer & Koblenzer, 1988) however, a major depressive disorder should be ruled out before a disturbance in the family dynamics is implicated (Allen, 1989). Chronic idiopathic urticaria has been...

Risk among Biological Relatives

Resume For Medical Data Abstractor

The exact etiology of schizophrenia has remained one of the major mysteries surrounding this disease. In the past, much of this debate pitted environmental and hereditary factors against each other. Based on a unique environmental characteristic, the Israeli high-risk study (Marcus et al., 1987) attempted to help solve this problem. Many Israeli settlements, particularly in formerly unpopulated areas such as the Negev Desert, were built on the kibbutz model. One characteristic of a kibbutz is that all the children are raised together by child care workers rather than being raised in the family. This means that for the children raised in a kibbutz, the environment is basically similar. From a research perspective it was assumed that many environmental factors that might contribute to schizophrenia would also be held constant in the kibbutz. To investigate this phenomenon (among others), researchers identified 100 Israeli children 50 children from the Kibbutz and 50 children from the...

Prediction and Psychoanalysis

I am a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst interested in how neuroscience can enhance the understanding and treatment of psychological problems 21-24 . Psychoanalysis is a powerful tool in the treatment of long-standing maladaptive thought patterns, belief systems, as well as emotional and behavioral responses within interpersonal situations. Psychoanalysis has benefited from the infusion of ideas from other disciplines, regarding such diverse topics as child development, attachment, inborn personality traits, genetic vulnerabilities, the use of medication, and neuroscience. In this chapter my main aim is to examine the neuroscience paradigm of prediction and to demonstrate its relevance to the practice of psychoanalysis.

Public Safety and Public Health Outcomes

Research carried out in Australia (Weatherburn & Lind, 2004) sheds light on the way that the destabilization of families can lead to delinquency. Their study found that economic deprivation led to dysfunctional parenting practices (faulty disciplinary methods and risk of abuse). These practices weakened the bonds between parent and children, and the latter substituted an enhanced attachment to peers for the unsatisfactory attachment to parents. Because those suffering from economic deprivation tend to live in neighborhoods with a greater supply of delinquents as peers, the youth who become alienated from their parents become attached to delinquent colleagues. Thus, delinquency becomes amplified.

Sickness and Legitimization

As illness denotes a person's feeling of not being well, and HQOL denotes a person's subjective feeling of capacity to perform normal activities and to meet normal obligations sickness is used to denote behavior consistent with illness or low HQOL. That is, a person may feel ill and act sick, for example, by not engaging in normal behavior such as recreation, work, or child care. Just as a person with a disease may or may not feel ill, a person who feels ill may or may not act sick. However, since sickness is a behavior, it can be measured, e.g., as days of lost work due to sickness.

Koffka and Growth of the Mind

Background, the book was an introduction to child psychology with a special focus on childhood learning. Koffka agreed with William Stern's hypothesis that when learning takes place, there is a melding or convergence of outer conditions and inner (mental) capability. He was a strong opponent of rote learning, seeing it as the death of creativity. Equally, Koffka believed that neither a reward system nor trial-and-error were the reasons that humans learn, but rather that the mind has an innate desire to learn, to experience good Gestalt. In these ways, Koffka applied Gestalt psychology to education, and the application of Gestalt ideas has spilled over into many educational concepts, including the Montessori method of education.

Quantum Psychology and the New

In cognitive therapy this is called mind reading. Simply put, if I believe nobody likes me, I project that you don't like me, and then I act as if this mind reading were the truth. Often times, people as children develop this cognitive distortion as a way to handle their parental situation. Mind-reading Mommy's or Daddy's wants could certainly help a child to please them and survive. The child learned that mind reading and pleasing an alcoholic or abusive parent might be a way to keep the peace. Unfortunately, as the child becomes an adult he takes this mind reading with him on automatic. The adult, with this mechanism running, will mind read, unknowingly, the present-time situation, as if it were the threatening past.

The psychologist at home

In hindsight, many of the ideas that Binet formed about child development seem ahead of their time. Several of them appear to foreshadow the later work of Jean Piaget, the famous Swiss psychologist who described four stages in children's mental development. Like Piaget, Binet believed that the purpose of mental

Social science activism and scrutiny

Your Child, charged that there was no scientific evidence that racial segregation damages the human personality. Other social scientists shared the concern, including strident voices of those scientists who promoted theories of race differences in intelligence (RDI) as grounds for segregation. Dissenting opinions also came from the legal profession, whose members were unaccustomed to social science evidence bearing so much weight in the legal decisions of the Court system.


Another influential mentor during her graduate years was Professor William Blatz, who had developed a personality theory called security theory. Security theory was based on the idea that children who feel secure in their dependence on their parents are better equipped to adjust and cope with experiences in the outside world, because they are assured that their parent(s) will always be there for them. Those who are insecure in the parent-child relationship will not be as willing to act independently of their parents and explore the world around them.


Countries, several studies have demonstrated that the strange situation does not necessarily apply across all cultures. This may be due to differences in parenting styles and family values, or (perhaps more accurately) attributable to the fact that the attachment classifications resulting from the test may reflect a Western bias.

Gender Equality

Considerable research has focused on whether and how socializing agents, including parents, teachers, peers, and media such as children's books and television, reinforce gender stereotypes and teach children to exhibit sex-typed behaviors. Researchers have been concerned both with how gender roles are modeled for children and with how sex-typed behavior is rewarded. A study by Lisa Serbin and her colleagues carried out in the 1970's is an example. These researchers observed teachers' interactions with children in a preschool setting and recorded their observations in a standardized way. They found that teachers gave more attention to girls when they were physically close to them than when they were farther away however, teachers' attention to boys did not vary with the child's proximity. This finding suggests that teachers reinforce girls more than boys for dependent behavior without necessarily meaning to do so.


Health education should be the responsibility of all health workers and should be based on a clear understanding of the people's perception of disease and its relation to the environment. Efforts should be directed towards those groups that are at greatest risk and most involved in transmission -usually young children. It is recommended that, whenever possible, efforts be positive rather than negative in orientation. In other words, it is better to encourage children to refrain from initially polluting water sources than to try to prevent water contact. Infection is likely to be associated with certain types of water-contact behaviour, which will vary in different transmission situations. If a link is established between specific activities and schistosomiasis transmission, then these activities should be discouraged.


From the beginning, psychoanalysis was more than just a treatment. It was, and continues to be, a method for investigating the mind and a theory to explain both everyday adult behavior and child development. Many of Freud's insights, which seemed so revolutionary at the beginning of the twentieth century, are now widely accepted by various schools of psychological thought and form the basis for several theories of psychological motivation, most theories of child development, and all forms of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Some of Freud's ideas, such as his theories about women, turned out to be wrong and were revised by other psychoanalysts during the 1970's and 1980's. Other ideas, such as those about the nature of dreams, although rejected by some scientists during the 1980's and 1990's, were revisited by other scientists by the beginning of the twenty-first century. Psychoanalytic ideas and concepts are used in communities to solve problems such as bullying in schools and can be...


If a woman is already using a contraceptive method, it should be evaluated for ease of use and reliability, together with any special recommendations concerning its use during travel. If a woman wishes to try a new method, she should begin months prior to travel, especially if she is planning to be overseas on a long-term assignment or in a remote area. Back-up methods should be discussed in case she loses her present method for example, if she is on an oral contraceptive and loses her packages what can she do The International Planned Parenthood Federation keeps a worldwide guide to contraceptives and a list of family planning clinics. There are a number of websites that might also be helpful (Table 24.2). International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF)

Unplanned Pregnancy

If a traveler becomes pregnant and wishes to terminate the pregnancy it may be best for her to return home, depending on where she is and where she is going. Over half the countries listed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation prohibit abortion except in extreme cases such as rape and life-threatening illness.

Functional Outcomes

Saigal and colleagues (2006) found no significant differences in high school graduation rates, the level of education attained, rates of employment, rates of independent living, marriage or cohabitation status, or rates of parenthood between 22- and 25-year-olds born weighing between 501 and 1,000 grams (extremely low birth weight) and those born with normal birth weights. Subanalyses, however, revealed that more participants born with low birth weights reported that they were neither in school nor employed, although these differences disappeared when those with disabilities were excluded. These results suggest that individuals born preterm can make a successful transition into adulthood. It is noted, however, that the participants in this sample were predominantly white, were from relatively advantaged homes, and had access to universal health care.


A good start-up exercise is to have each member discuss an experience of being supportive to persons within and outside their networks. The discussion should be directed at discussing how members feel when they give support. For example, members might report feeling joy or satisfaction that they are building a relationship, fulfilling a spiritual mission, and so on. This exercise ties into the one in the previous session whereby members discussed how they felt when they received support. Members should also be directed to discuss when they are likely to give support and the types of support they are good at giving. For example, if a member is good with children, he or she may want to offer child-care support. A person who knows the public transportation system in the city well may want to be a guide for a person who is less adept with the public transportation system.

Child Abuse

Research has substantiated that child abuse can result in impaired attachment in children as manifested by boundary problems in relationships, poor social skills, recapitulation of victim or victimizer behavior in relationships, distrust of others, and the sexualizing of relationships (Friedrich, 1996). From this integrated approach, treatment of attachment issues within this context requires the formation of a solid therapeutic alliance. Different children's attachment histories will manifest and play out differently within the context of the therapist-child relationship and require different responses from the therapist. For example, children with a disorganized attachment requires clear and firm boundaries on the part of the therapist in order to tolerate, absorb or contain, and redirect such children's dependency and physical proximity-seeking (Friedrich, 1996, p. 108). It is crucial to help establish a secure-base as trauma in this population is partially understood as either a...

Case Studies

There are programs designed to address the problem of female detainees within the criminal justice system. In 1992 the National Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 was reauthorized. The new language included directives specifically mandating the development of programs that addressed the needs of female juveniles. These programs were to focus on health and mental health services, education and vocational training, and parenting skills. Despite best intentions, a successful gender-specific program required a paradigm shift without one the needs of women and girls cannot be met. For example, the criminal justice system is frequently organized so as to place juveniles as close to home as possible. While sensible and humane on the one hand, establishing that kind of procedure ignores the well-documented reality that many female juveniles have been sexually and or physically abused, and in many cases the abuser was a member of the family or a close family friend....

In the classroom

Research Marie Anne Suizzo, writing in the journal Child Development in 2000, cited a 1996 study by researchers Robbie Case and Yukari Okamoto that explored the cross-cultural attainment of Piaget's formal operations stage of abstract reasoning. They administered Piagetian tasks to determine the developmental stage of individuals tested and concluded that children, and even adults who live in societies where the base ten number system is not in use, or where formal schooling is not available to all, do not usually attain the level of formal operational thought normally reached by adults in industrial societies.

Main points

Binet thought his test could identify which children would be able to succeed in regular classrooms and which would need special educational programs. He also believed, however, that the categories of normal and retarded were not carved in stone. Steps could be taken to raise the intelligence of mentally retarded children, at least to a degree. To this end, he helped design a series of exercises called mental orthopedics. Binet had noted that retarded children, much like young children of normal intelligence, had trouble paying attention to anything for very long. Therefore, many of the exercises were geared to helping children increase their attention span. For example, one exercise was the game Statue. The

Penny Titman

Skin disease is very common among children and young people. For example, up to 20 of young children develop eczema and the majority of young people develop some symptoms of acne temporarily during adolescence (McHenry et al., 1995 Smithard et al., 2001). However, there is surprisingly little research on the psychological impact of skin disease in childhood and the focus of most research in paediatric psychology has been on life-threatening conditions, such as cancer. Despite the lack of research, there is widespread acknowledgement of the impact of skin disease on the psychological well-being and quality of life of children, and increasing awareness of the importance of understanding the psychological impact of skin disorders on children and their families (Howlett, 1999).

Bolivia 19962000

Health care costs in Bolivia were assumed to be a major impediment to the use of services, such as a skilled birth attendant and a hospital for birthing. To overcome this barrier and reduce the MMR of 390 per 100,000 live births (INE and MI 1994), a national health insurance plan has been phased in to cover the costs of services vital to the reduction of maternal and infant mortality. In July 1996 the Bolivian government implemented the National Maternal and Child Health Insurance (MCHI) Program, with the main objective, as the name implies, of increasing coverage of maternal and child care. For pregnant women and babies, the insurance covered prenatal, labor and delivery, and postpartum and newborn care, including cesarean sections and coverage for other obstetrical emergencies. On December 31, 1998, the government created the Basic Health Insurance (BHI) to augment the MCHI, with explicit coverage of complications of pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum, including postabortion care,...


Just what general ability IQ tests measure remains uncertain, but increasingly, psychologists and educators have conceptualized giftedness as a function of specialized capabilities and potential for performance in specific fields such as mathematics, biology, dance, or visual arts. A definition of giftedness first offered in a 1971 report to the Congress of the United States by Sidney Marland, then commissioner of education, indicates a much broader concept of giftedness than high IQ scores have been found to measure. Gifted and talented children are those identified by professionally qualified persons who, by virtue of outstanding abilities, are capable of high performance. He continued,

Making human sense

Donaldson, a child development psychologist, visited Piaget's research center in Geneva where she attended seminars and observed actual testing. She has criticized what she described as contrived experimental work, that provides the experimenter with only one view of the child. Donaldson and others tested Piaget's theories on preschool children and concluded that the reason these children were unable to perform Piaget's tasks successfully was primarily due to their difficulties understanding the questions being asked of them, rather than a lack of logical skills or the cognitive limitations of what Piaget called egocentric behavior. Donaldson took issue with Piaget's findings, particularly with regard to his three mountains task, in her 1978 book Children's Minds. When the researcher uses more familiar items and language, children may perform beyond Piaget's stages. Young children are capable of much more than Piaget ever gave them credit, she contends. There is now a...

Motor Impairment

For the most immature infants, another meaningful statistic is the rate of CP among survivors. On the basis of data for preterm survivors born in the late 1980s through the 1990s, the rate of CP increases with decreasing gestational age or birth weight category (Table 11-1) (Colver et al., 2000 Cooke, 1999 Doyle et al., 1995 Doyle and Anderson, 2005 Elbourne et al., 2001 Emsley et al., 1998 Finnstrom et al., 1998 Grether et al., 2000 Hack et al., 2000, 2005 Hansen and Greisen, 2004 Hintz et al., 2005 Lefebvre et al., 1996 Mikkola et al., 2005 O'Shea et al., 1997 Piecuch et al., 1997a,b Salokorpi et al., 2001 Sauve et al., 1998 Stanley et al., 2000 Tommiska et al., 2003 Vohr et al., 2000. 2005 Wilson-Costello et al., 2005 Wood et al., 2000). Only 0.1 to 0.2 percent of full-term children develop CP, whereas 11 to 12 percent born at


Ronment can compensate for the disadvantages encountered perinatally and neonatally (Wolke, 1998). Recent evidence shows that intervention providing social and environmental enhancement through home visits and child development programs, is associated with catch up in cognitive and behavioral development in large preterm infants, especially those from socieconomically disadvantaged backgrounds (Brooks-Gunn et al., 1994 Olds and Kitzman, 1993 Ramey and Ramey, 1999). This suggests that these larger preterm infants may not have persistent central nervous system insults. In contrast, although early interventions may have an impact on the outcomes for smaller preterm infants, biological factors may be the best predictors of cognitive and behavioral outcomes at school age.

Health Insurance

The original purpose of private health insurance programs was to share the risk associated with unpredictable serious health events and their treatment, and private health insurance benefits have broadened greatly over the decades to include a good deal of preventive care. Nonetheless, private health insurance typically limits substantially the benefits that it provides for children with long-term health conditions. Coverage for rehabilitation services, for example, is usually limited to 3 months after an acute event that usually requires hospitalization. Thus, the notion of ongoing treatment to maintain or limit the loss of functioning has little place in private health insurance models. In addition, various cost-sharing mechanisms in private health insurance programs can severely strain the resources of families raising children with chronic health conditions, who must frequently make substantial copayments for health care.