• Disorders of serum sodium are generally due to as in total body water, not sodium

• Hyper - or hypoosmolality — rapid water shifts As in brain cell volume A MS. seizures Key hormones

• Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): primary hormone that regulates sodium concentration stimuli for secretion: hyperosmolality. U effective arterial volume (EAV) action: open water channels in collecting ducts -» passive water reabsorption urine osmolality is an indirect functional assay of the ADH-renal axis Uovn range: 60 mOsm L (no ADH) to 1200 mOsm L (maximal ADH)

• Aldosterone: primary hormone that regulates total body sodium (and .. volume)

stimuli for secretion: hypovolemia (via renin and angiotensin II), hyperkalemia action: isoosmotic reabsorption of sodium in exchange for potassium or H*

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