1904: B.F. Skinner born March 20.

1930: Initiates research in reflexes.

1936: Marries Yvonne Blue.

1938: The Behavior of Organisms is published.

1942: Awarded the Warren Medal by the Society of Experimental Psychologists.

1945: Takes over the Psychology Department at the University of Indiana, where he developed the Teaching Machine and Aircrib.

1948: Walden Two is published.

1956: Fixed interval schedule of reinforcement described.

1966: Introduces the concept of critical period in reinforcing an event.

1968: Identifies the critical characteristics of programmed instruction.

1971: Publishes Beyond Freedom and Dignity.

1972: Receives the Humanist of the Year Award by the American Humanist Association.

1983: Publishes Enjoying Old Age.

1990: Dies on August 18.

minimum turnover and cost. The study was initiated because of the very high turnover rate of cleaning staff and the substandard work carried out. To further exacerbate management's situation, the hiring, training, outfitting, and maintenance of a housekeeping staff is one of the largest budget line items for most hotel/motel operations. During the assessment it was discovered that a standard of cleanliness had not been established, feedback to the cleaning staff was essentially nonexistent, and aversive managerial practices were common, leading to low morale. The applications of behavior modification began by establishing clear standards that could be objectively measured regarding cleanliness. Management then chose to positively reinforce the role of the cleaning staff by rewarding their performance with merit-pay increases when they adhered to the cleanliness standards set forth. Regular feedback was given to staff to keep them informed of training and expectations. The program was successful in improving worker morale, raising the level of cleanliness, and saving a substantial amount of money in the long term.

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