in man's life cycle is to protect this recognition while [Kohlberg's] developmental litany intones the celebration of separation, autonomy, individuation, and natural rights.
Following the publication of In a Different Voice, Gilligan undertook several research projects involving interviews with adolescent girls in a variety of settings. In 1986 Gilligan became a tenured full professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. She was a visiting professor of American History and Institutions at Cambridge University in England from 1992 through 1994. Named by Time magazine in 1996 as one of the 25 most influential people in the United States, Gilligan was appointed to Harvard's first endowed chair of gender studies in 1997. In 2002 Gilligan left Harvard to join the faculty of New York University as a professor in the School of Law as well as the Graduate School of Education.
Gilligan's research in the development of adolescent girls led her to develop what she calls the listening guide method. The method is intended to evaluate persons' discussions of psychologically difficult or taboo topics through analysis of the latent meanings as well as explicit wording or phrases. The latent meanings are probed through study of the subject's pauses, hesitations, changes in the thread of an argument, and self-descriptions. The interviewer is expected to build a trusting relationship with the subject, in contrast to the attitude of "objectivity" that is taken for granted in most research interviews. In addition, each interview transcript is read four times. In the first reading, the interviewer analyzes the content and records her or his inner reaction to it. In the second reading, the interviewer focuses on the subject's self-descriptions. The third and fourth readings highlight specific words, phrases, and Carol Gilligan. (Phoo repeating themes in the courtesy of Jerry Bauer. Reproduced by interview, such as "care" permission.) or "justice.
He sometimes referred to this principle as "learning by doing."
Dewey first taught at the University of Michigan (1884-1894); later, he joined the faculty at the University of Chicago (1894-1904) and Columbia University (1904-1952). Dewey's most influential publications include School and Society (1889), "My Pedagogic Creed" (1897), and Democracy and Education (1916). In addition to his writings, however, Dewey led the movement for progressive education in the United States through his influence on actual educational practice. The Laboratory School of the University of Chicago was founded in 1896 in response to Dewey's ideas; it expanded over the years to include four schools (nursery/kindergarten, lower, middle, and high) that had enrolled a total of 1,600 pupils annually as of the early 2000s. Thus, Kohlberg performed his undergraduate and doctoral work in the institution that was identified with both the theory and the practical application of Dewey's ideas.
Kohlberg himself was quite explicit about his indebtedness to Dewey's concept of education. In his early essay on the Platonic roots of his concept of justice, he was careful to note that he had ". . . discussed [his] views within John Dewey's framework. In speaking of a Platonic view [of justice], [he was] not discarding [his] basic Deweyism." In a well known article that Kohlberg coauthored with Rochelle Mayer, he echoed Dewey's insistence on the importance of democratic values:
In regard to ethical values, the progressive ideology adds the postulates of development and democracy to the postulates of liberalism. The notion of educational democracy is one in which justice between teacher and child means joining in a community in which value decisions are made on a shared and equitable basis.
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