Lewin's unfreezing-change-refreezing model of organizational change has also been criticized in recent years. One reason is that Lewin's model assumes that a static condition, or being frozen, is the normal condition of organizations. Second, the model assumes that managers are able to control or direct the processes of change within the organization. The increased pace of change in the business world over the past few decades has called that notion into question. Such recent researchers as David Nadler and his associates have argued that change in the current organizational environment takes two forms, continuous and discontinuous. Continuous change can be understood in terms of Lewin's model. It is the type of change represented by quality improvement programs and characterized by planned changes in performance as well as products. Discontinuous change, on the other hand, is caused by such external forces as disruptions in global markets, new technology, and rising expectations on the part of customers. It cannot be controlled by managers and frequently produces a sense of day-to-day chaos and disorder within businesses. As a result, people at all levels of these organizations need to learn and take action at the same time, as the speed of discontinuous change does not allow for the staff training programs and other relatively slow responses built into Lewin's freezing-change-refreezing model.
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