R

rational-emotive behavior therapy: a mode of treatment developed by Albert Ellis in which a client is challenged to examine his or her irrational beliefs and taught to think more rationally with the goal of reducing emotional problems.

rationalization: a type of defense mechanism in which a person gives an intellectual reason or rationale for an emotionally motivated action in order to assign socially acceptable motives to one's behavior or to mask disappointment.

reaction formation: a type of defense mechanism in which a person deals with unacceptable feelings by adopting diametrically opposite ones.

reflection of feelings: method used in Rogerian therapy in which the therapist encourages the client to interpret thoughts or events by various methods, as the phrase "How do you feel about that?"

regression: a type of defense mechanism in which a person reverts to behavior characteristic of an earlier period of life in order to gain access to the sources of gratification experienced during that period.

reinforcement: a stimulus that increases the probability that a particular behavior will occur.

repression: a principal defense mechanism in which a person selectively forgets disturbing material.

Rorschach technique: popularly known as the "Inkblot Test," a widely used projective psychological test used to assess personality structure and identify emotional problems.

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