Psychoanalysis is far too nebulous an undertaking to be quantified into a numerical breakdown of cures from one form of therapy or another. There is even some question as to whether psychoanalysis— the talking therapy—is an art, rather than a science. This further muddies the waters of the efficacy of treatments. Patrick Kavanaugh of the Academy for the Study of the Psychoanalytic Arts has described mental health treatment in this era of the brain and of managed care as "conceptual understandings of human behavior based upon a biologized-medicalized-chemicalized-pathologized reductive metaphysical position." Put simply, nearly all psychoanalytic and biological theories propounded over the decades of the twentieth century have had some validity and have
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