Deep Brain Stimulation
Austin, Indiana University School of Nursing, 1111 Middle Drive, NU 492, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5107, USA R. Baldwin, Epilepsy Research Laboratory, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Department of Neurology and Brain Research Institute, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA T.Z. Baram, Departments of Pediatrics and Anatomy Neurobiology and Neurology, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-4475, USA D P. Barboriak, Department of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA J. Engel, Jr., Departments of Neurology and Neurobiology, and the Brain Research Institute, UCLA School of Medicine, 710 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1769, USA Universit t Berlin, Tucholskystrasse 2, D 10117 Berlin, Germany H. Katsumori, Epilepsy Research Laboratory, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Department of Neurology and Brain Research Institute, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA R. Kauppinen, NMR...
Of most animal experimentation, he gives a clear and thorough discussion of the entire context of animal experimentation from both sides. Includes sections on animal rights, similarities and differences between human and nonhuman subjects, the role of methodological considerations and replicability in scientific progress, and alternatives to animal testing. The author specifically addresses some of the uglier behavioral studies on animals, including some by Harry Harlow. Gross, Charles G., and H. Philip Zeigler, eds. Motivation. Vol. 2 in Readings in Physiological Psychology. New York Harper & Row, 1969. Although there are dozens of newer collections of articles in the area of physiological psychology, this one does a particularly good job of covering the broad diversity of topics in the field. In addition, all the work represented in this particular collection came from animal studies. This or a similar collection can be consulted for illustration of many specific methodologies used...
Models of Memory in Embodied Cognitive Science Memory as a Dynamic and Constructive Process of the Whole Organism
For a long time I found it difficult to understand thoroughly the fundamental differences between the concepts of memory in classical and in embodied cognitive science, which has been intensively influenced by the neurobiological brain research of the last years. We therefore want to discuss three of the central topics quite extensively
Surgical techniques in Parkinson's patients leading to ablation of the pallidum nucleus or the thalamus were employed for many years but were superseded by L-dopa treatment. Currently, focus on surgical interventions has awakened again. Ventromedial pallidotomy reduces overactivity of the globus pallidus, which had been implicated in the motor disability associated with PD (93). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become the surgical treatment of choice. Despite the effectiveness of the surgery, it is important to bear in mind that such surgeries are drastic measures a part of the brain, once ablated, cannot be replaced. So although these therapies may yield symptomatic alleviation of the disease, they may cause other complications later or eventually become ineffectual as dop-aminergic neurons continue to be lost.
Arnold, Department of Physiological Science and Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA Lin Chang, MD, CNS Center for Neurovisceral Sciences and Women's Health, Departments of Medicine, Physiology and Biobehavioral Sciences Brain Research Institute, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA
2 Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a powerful, noninvasive neurophysiological technique based on Faraday's principles of electromagnetic induction. A brief pulse of current flowing through a coil of wire generates a magnetic field. If the magnitude of this magnetic field changes over time, then it will induce a secondary current in any nearby conductor. For brain stimulation, a pulse is produced in a coil held over a subject's head. As a brief pulse of current is passed through it, a magnetic field is generated that passes through the subject's scalp and skull with negligible attenuation. This time-varying magnetic field induces an electric current in the subject's brain, causing depolarization of cellular membranes and thereby neuronal activation. In many experiments, single pulses of TMS are applied over the motor cortex. The stimulation of the motor cortex is able to transsynaptically activate the corticospinal system and to produce a response in contralateral extremity...
Somatosensory-related structures are also crucial for emotion recognition 139-142 . These areas may become active in tasks involving facial expression judgment 141 . Importantly, lesions to somatosensory areas in brain-damaged patients 25, 139 , or interference with the activity of these structures obtained by means of magnetic brain stimulation 140 , impairs facial emotion recognition. According to ST, during the recognition of another's emotion, specific sensorimotor structures could provide a somatic description of the experience derived from actually feeling the same emotion. This may help us to learn about others' emotional states 25,140,142 .
That were made in the 1980s and 1990s do not support Beck's notion of a close relationship between cognitions and emotions. The first such discovery was made in the course of so-called split-brain research. Split-brain research refers to studies carried out with epileptic subjects who have had a commissurotomy. In this procedure, the neurosurgeon cuts the corpus callosum, a band of tissue that carries nerve impulses between the two cerebral hemispheres, in order to control the patient's seizures. The researchers discovered that the human mind is not a unified entity, but consists of modules operating independently of one another. The parts of the brain that govern emotional states may have little to do with the parts that process information. What split-brain studies indicate is that consciousness cannot be an exact mirror of what is going on in the brain. Yet consciousness plays a central role in the theories underlying cognitive therapy.
Autobiographical memory contents are multimodal and multicoded, which means they are coded in acquired verbal and nonverbal codes, as well as in acquired emotional codes. Emotional codes represent the quality of the interactions between a developing individual and the environment, mainly the social environment. This is of basic importance for the dialogue between psychoanalysis and brain research, and is one of the basic proposals of the brain model we are working with.
Have you ever been envious of people who seem to have no end of clever ideas, who are able to think quickly in any situation, or who seem to have flawless memories? Could it be that they're just born smarter or quicker than the rest of us? Or are there some secrets that they might know that we don't?