Danazol Drug which inhibits pituitary gonadotrophins.
Decongestant sprays Nasal aerosols which unblock the congested nasal airways.
Decylmethyl sulphoxide A powerful hydrophobic solvent used as a transdermal penetration enhancer.
Defaecation The expulsion of faeces.
Deltoid muscle Triangular muscle which covers the shoulder.
Deoxycorticosterone A hormone from the adrenal gland which controls salt and water metabolism.
Dermis The inner layer of the skin, lying beneath the epidermis.
Descemet's membrane A fine membrane which lies between the endothelial layer of the cornea and the substantia propria.
Desmopressin A synthetic vasopressin analogue used as an antidiuretic.
Desmosomes Small spot-like structures joining adjacent cells.
Dexamethasone A synthetic glucocorticoid drug.
Dextran A polysaccharide used as a viscosity enhancer, and as a hydrophilic macromolecular marker.
Dextropropoxyphene Propoxyphene—an analgesic which can cause addition.
Diabetes insipidus Disease caused by insufficient secretion of vasopressin. Characterised by excessive thirst and urine production.
Diarrhoea Liquid or watery faeces, often caused by lower gastrointestinal disturbances.
Diazoxide Drug used in treating hypertension emergencies.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) An early insecticide, now ubiquitous throughout the animal and plant kingdom due to overuse.
Diclofenac Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to treat pain and inflammation in rheumatic disease.
Diffusion coefficient Constant of proportionality in Fick's law, a measure of the speed with which a molecule diffuses in a specified environment.
Diflunisal Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to treat pain and inflammation in rheumatic disease.
Digoxin A cardiac glycoside derived from the foxglove.
Dimethyl sulphoxide A powerful hydrophobic solvent used as a transdermal penetration enhancer.
Dipalmitoyl lecithin A phospholipid in which both acyl chains are derived from palmitic acid.
Disaccharides Small carbohydrates formed by linking two simple sugar molecules, the best-known example being sucrose.
Disopyramide Drug used to treat ventricular arrhythmia.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid, the nuclear component carrying the genetic code.
Domperidone An anti-nausea drug.
Dopamine A catecholamine synthesized by the adrenal gland It is the the precursor of noradrenaline. Also a neurotransmitter or brain messenger.
Dorzolamide A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used in the treatment of glaucoma.
Doxycycline A broad-spectrum tetracycline antibiotic.
Duodenal receptors Receptors located in the duodenum, sensing the calorific load delivered to the small intestine.
Duodenogastric reflux Reflux of duodenal contents (often containing bile) into the stomach.
Duodenum The short length of gastrointestinal tract situated between the lower gastric pylorus and the small intestine.
Dyspepsia Vague term applied to a variety of upper gastrointestinal symptoms, often associated with food consumption and acid secretion.
Eccrine sweat glands Gland distributed over the entire skin surface which secrete sweat and are essential for regulation of body temperature.
EDTA Ethylene diaminetetracetic acid. A powerful chelating agent which binds many metal cations
Eicosanoids All of the products of metabolism of arachidonic acid.
Elastin An extracellular connective tissue protein that is principal component of elastic fibres.
Electroosmosis The movement of solvent to balance the osmotic pressure due to movement of ions in an electric field.
Electropermeabilization See electroporation.
Electroporation The permabilization of cell membranes by brief high voltage electric pulses.
Embolism A blockage in a blood vessel caused by a solid particle, gas bubble, blood clot, or oil droplet.
Emphysema A chronic pulmonary disease characterised increase in the size of air spaces and destructive changes to the wall.
Emulsions Codispersions of two immiscible liquids, normally requiring an emulsifier to remain stable.
Endocrine An internal secretion. Endocrine gland secretes directly into the bloodstream.
Endocytosis Ingestion of foreign substances by a cell.
Endometrium Mucous membrane lining the inner surface of the uterus.
Endoscopy The use of a viewing device such as a miniature camera or fibre optic probe to view inside the body.
Endotoxins Bacterial toxin confined within the body of a bacterium and is released only when the bacterium is broken down.
Enprofylline A phosphodiesterase inhibitor of the xanthine type
Enterocele Hernia of the intestine through the vagina or posterior vaginal hernia.
Enterocytes Intestinal cell.
Enteroglucagon Hormone release from the small intestinal endocrine cells.
Enterohepatic recirculation Bile acids are poorly absorbed in the proximal small intestine, but are absorbed by an active process in the terminal ileum. After absorption, bile acids have a high hepatic clearance and are re-secreted in the bile.
Enterokinase Previous term used for enteropeptidase.
Enteropeptidase Enzyme occurring in the mucosa of the duodenum essential for the activation of the trypsinogen to trypsin.
Enuresis Involuntary discharge of urine.
Eosinophilia Presence of an unusual number of eosinophils in the blood.
Epidermis The outer layer of skin cells.
Epimysium Outermost sheath of connective tissue that surrounds a skeletal muscle.
Ergotamine tartate A alkaloid derived from ergot. Stimulates smooth muscle of blood vessels and the uterus inducing vasoconstriction and uterine contractions.
Erythema Redness of the skin.
Erythrocyte ghost The cell membrane of an erythrocyte emptied of its intracellular contents.
Erythromycin An antibiotic from Streptomyces erythreus. It is active against many gram positive and some gram negative bacteria.
Erythropoeitin A hormone which stimulates red blood cell production.
Escherichia coli One of the most common faecal bacteria.
Esterase An enzyme which degrades an ester, usually into an alcohol and a carboxylic acid.
Esters Compounds formed by reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid.
Ethinylestradiol Synthetic oesotrogen.
Ethmoid bone Spongy bone which forms the roof of the nasal fossae.
Ethyl oleate An oil commonly used as a pharmaceutical excipient.
Ethylcellulose A chemically modified cellulose used as a pharmaceutical excipient.
Ethylenediaminepentaacetic acid A powerful chelating agent which binds many metal cations.
Eudragit Trade name for a series of wax-based pharmaceutical excipients.
Extravasation The escape of fluids into the surrounding tissue.
Faraday crispations Fluctuations in the surface of a liquid induced by ultrasound, leading to the production of aerosol droplets.
Fatty acids Carboxylic acid derivatives of higher alkanes, generally 4-24 carbon atoms long, often unsaturated.
Fenoterol Adrenoceptor stimulant used to treat reversible airways construction.
Ferrireductase A cytochrome P450 reductase which converts ferric to ferrous iron.
Fibrinogen A protein present in the blood plasma essential for clotting.
Fibronectin A group of proteins present in blood plasma and extracellular matrix.
Fick's law Fundamental relation between diffusion rate and concentration gradient.
First-pass metabolism Blood from the small intestine goes directly to the liver where nutrients and some drugs are metabolised substantially. This can result in the loss of a large proportion of active drug before it can reach its target site.
Flunisolide Corticosteroid used in the prophylaxis and treatment of allergic rhinitis.
Fluorescein Strongly fluorescent dye often used as a biochemical marker.
Fluorocarbons Organic molecules in which a substantial fraction of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by fluorine. If all the hydrogen has been replaced they are termed perfluorocarbons. These molecules dissolve substantial amounts of respiratory gases and have been widely studied for the formulation of blood substitutes.
Folds of kerckring Folding of the epithelium to increase surface area.
Formaldehyde The simplest aliphatic aldehyde, CH2O, used as a preservative. It denatures proteins and is highly toxic.
Foveola A minute pit of depression.
Frenulum linguae Fold of mucous membrane which runs from the floor of the mouth to the inferior surface of the tongue.
Fundus The larger part, base or body of a hollow organ or the portion of the organ furthest from the opening. The fundus of the stomach is closest to the oesophagus.
Gamma scintigraphy The use of gamma emitting radionuclides to study behaviour of drug formulations within the body for research. It is s routine technique in nuclear medicine for diagnosis. Requires a gamma camera.
Ganciclovir Antiviral drug.
Gastric glands cardiac, fundic or oxyntic and pyloric glands of the stomach.
Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIF) A polypeptide in the cells of the duodenum and jejunum which acts to inhibit secretion of gastric acid.
Gastrin A hormone secreted by the pyloric area of the stomach and duodenum to stimulate gastric secretion.
Gastro-oesophageal junction Region where the stomach and oesophagus meet. Gastric tissue lines the first few centimetres of the oesophagus to protect it from acid damage.
Gastro-oesophageal reflux Reflux of gastric contents into the oesophagus where it can cause oesophagitis. Causes the classic symptom of "heartburn".
Gastrocolic reflex Peristaltic wave in the colon initiated by the intake of food into the stomach.
Gelatinase Enzyme which breaks down gelatin.
Gellan gum A polysaccharide used as a rheological modifier in pharmacy and as a food additive.
Gelling polymers Polymers which form gels in solution.
Gels Solutions which have become rigid due to a linked polymer network.
Gentamicin Aminoglycoside used in the treatment of serious infection.
Giant unilamellar vesicles Large (several micrometres) single-layered liposomes.
Gingiva The gum and tissue that surrounds the neck of the teeth.
Gingivitis Inflammation of the gums.
Glands of Kraus Small glands in the conjunctiva of the eyelids.
Glands of Manz Small glands which secrete the mucoid layer or tears.
Glands of Wolfring Produces the watery lacrimal secretion of tears.
Glands of Zeis Large sebaceous glands found in the eyelids.
Glaucoma Elevation of intraocular pressure.
Globulin One of a group of Simple proteins insoluble in water but soluble in neutral solutions of salts and strong acids.
Glucagon Polypeptide hormone which increases the concentration of glucose in the blood.
Glucocorticoids A general classification of hormones produced by the adrenal cortex and are primarily active in protecting against stress.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) An enzyme which dehydrogenates glucose-6-phosphate to form 6-phopshoglucon. This is the initial step in the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose catabolism.
Glucuronic acid Important acid in human metabolism by virtue of its detoxifying action.
Glucuronosyltransferases Liver enzymes responsible for blucuronidation of xenobiotics.
Glutamine The monoamide of aminoglutaric acid. It is present in the juices of many plants and is essential in the hydrolysis of proteins.
Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase A metabolic enzyme found in liver and heart tissue which is released into the bloodstream by tissue damage, and hence used as a therapeutic indicator.
Glutamic pyruvic transaminase see glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase.
Glutathione A tripeptide of glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine. Important in cellular respiration.
Glycerol A simple polyhydric alcohol, propane 1, 2, 3-triol.
Glyceryl trinitrate. See nitroglycerin.
Glycine The simplest amino-acid.
Glycocalyx A thin layer of glycoprotein and polysaccharide which covers the surface of some cells such as muscle.
Glycofurol A polar solvent used mainly in cosmetics and creams.
Glycogen A polysaccharide commonly called animal starch. The conversion of glycogen to glucose is called glycogenolysis. Glycogen is the form by which carbohydrate is stored in the body.
Glycolipids Lipids with an attached sugar molecule.
Glycoprotein A protein with an attached polysaccharide chain, often membraneresident and conferring antigenic properties.
Glycosaminoglycan A mucopolysaccharide found in cell walls and mucus.
Goblet cells Secretes mucus in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts.
Gradient-charged system A controlled release system in which the concentration of drug varies throughout its thickness in order to achieve a specified release profile.
Gramicidin D An antibiotic.
Greenhouse gases Gases which absorb solar infrared radiation, causing an elevation in the Earth's temperature.
Griseofulvin An antifungal agent. It's poor water solubility led to its being used as a model drug for a wide range of formulation studies.
Guar gum A plant polysaccharide used as a viscosity modifier, pharmaceutical excipient, and food additive.
Guinea pig Small furry animal so widely used for experimental studies that it has given its name idiomatically to anyone or anything who is the subject of a novel experiment or trial.
Gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) term applied to all lymphoid tissue associated with the gastrointestinal tract incluuding tonsils, appendix and Payer's patches. It is responsible for controlling the entry of organisms via the gastrointestinal tract.
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All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.