H

H+/K+ ATPase The active transporter system responsible for pumping acid (H-) into the gastric lumen.

H1 receptors Histamine receptors found in the cells of the bronchiole muscle.

H2 receptors Histamine receptors found in the cells that secrete gastric acid.

Haemoglobin The mammalian oxygen transport protein located in the erythrocytes.

Haemolysis Disintegration of red blood cells with the release of haemoglobin.

Haemorrhoidal plexus The network of blood vessels surrounding the anal canal.

Haustra Sacculated pouches of the colon.

Hayfever Hypersensitivity of the eye and upper respiratory tract to inhaled pollens.

Heartburn See gastro-oesophageal reflux.

Helicobacter pylori An organism which lives beneath the mucus layer in the stomach and is associated with gastritis.

HEMA See hydroxyethyl methacrylate.

Hemidesmosomes See desmosomes.

Heparin A polysaccharide which inhibits blood coagulation.

Hepatic flexure The junction of the ascending and transverse colon.

Hepatic portal vein See also first pass metabolism. Only main vein in the body which does not go directly to the heart. It links the gastrointestinal tract to the liver.

Hexose transporter system An active transport system which transfers hexoses across the cell membrane.

HFAs See hydrofluoroalkanes.

Histamine A substance produced from the amino acid histidine. It is released from injured cells. Histamine increases gastric secretion, dilatation of capillaries and contraction of bronchial smooth muscle.

Histidine An amino acid obtained by hydrolysis from tissue proteins, necessary for tissue repair and growth.

Histiocytes A macrophage present in all loose connective tissue.

HIV infection Human immunodeficiency virus also known as AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).

Horseradish peroxidase Used to study aqueous pathways between cells.

Housekeeper contractions See migrating myoelectric complex.

Humidification saturation of air with water, esp. in the nose, so that the airflow does not dehydrate deeper tissues

Hyaluronic acid An acid mucopolysaccharide found in the ground sustance of connective tissue that acts as a binding and protective agent. Also found in the synovial fluid and aqueous and vitrous humors.

Hyaluronidase Enzyme found in the testes and is present in the semen. It depolymerises hyaluronic acid and acts to disperse cells of the ovum thus facilitating entry of sperm.

Hydrochloric acid HCl, the acid secreted in the stomach.

Hydrochlorthiazide A diuretic.

Hydrocortisone A corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex.

Hydrocyanic acid HCN, the acid from which cyanides are derived.

Hydrodynamically balanced system A drug delivery device designed to have the same density as the gastric contents.

Hydrofluoroalkanes Alkanes in which a number of hydrogen atoms have been replaced by fluorine, replacing chlorofluorocarbons as aerosol propellants since they do not damage the ozone layer.

Hydrogels Hydrophilic gels fomed from a range of polymers, esp. polyions such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate.

Hydrogen sulphide H2S, a toxic and malodorous gas commonly formed during digestion of sulphur-containing foods.

Hydrolases An enzyme that causes hydrolysis.

Hydroxyethyl methacrylate A hydrophilic gel-forming polymer.

Hydroxyethylcellulose A chemically modified cellulose used as a pharmaceutical excipient.

Hydroxyproline An amino-acid.

Hydroxypropylcellulose A chemically modified cellulose used as a pharmaceutical excipient.

Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose A chemically modified cellulose used as a pharmaceutical excipient.

5-Hydroxytryptamine See Serotonin.

Hypogonadism Excessive secretions of the sex glands.

invasion. They inhibit the production of the virus within infected cells.

Intrinsic factor of Castle A substance present in the gastric juice that makes absorption of vitamin . B12.

Inulin A polysaccharide found in plants. It is used to study renal function.

Ion exchange resins Polymer resins with numerous ionized sites which can reversibly bind a number of ions; commonly used for separation and purification purposes.

Iontophoresis The process of forcing an ionized drug to pass into a tissue using an electric current.

Ipratropium bromide Anticholinergic drug used to control asthma.

Isomaltase A membrane protein involved in carbohydrate metabolism.

Isoprenaline An inotropic sympathomimetic used to treat heart block and severe bradycardia.

Ispaghula Bulk-forming laxative.

IUDs See intrauterine devices.

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