Autonomic neuropathy

Figure 6.7 Effect of light (■) and heavy breakfast (•) on the gastric emptying and colon arrival of a co-administered multiparticulate formulation

only contains a small fraction of the total dose administered so local concentrations of the drug would be small thus reducing mucosal damage.

Castor oil is believed to decrease the activity of the circular smooth muscle which is thought to produce an increase in intestinal transit. The mechanism by which castor oil produces its effect on the gut could involve inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase, activation of adenylate cyclase, stimulation of prostaglandins and nitric oxide biosynthesis. Castor oil also changes the intestinal permeability and causes histological abnormalities.

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