Interspecies Comparisons

The majority of investigations published demonstrated the immense potential for nasal drug delivery. However, the majority of studies have been carried out in animals. A comparison of interspecies physiology and nasal clearance times is shown in Table 9.2. In humans, nasal drug delivery is only useful for drugs which have a low molecular weight, are active in low doses and have good aqueous solubility. It should also be borne in mind that the level of sedation used with different animals varies depending on ease of handling, and if general anaesthetics are used, these will usually reduce mucociliary transport. As a result the contribution of anaesthetics on published results can be difficult to assess.

Table 9.2 Comparison of interspecies nasal cavity characteristics83





Volume admin.




volume area (cm2)

per nostril (nl)


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