Introduction

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE COLON Interspecies differences in structure Colonic structure

Colonic mucosa Mucus Gut wall metabolism Blood supply

Nervous and humoral control Colonic environment

Water and electrolytes pH

Bacteria Colonic motility

Patterns of motility Electrical activity Gastrocolic reflex Defaecation

Physiological factors affecting colonic motility The effect of diet Influence of drugs Drug absorption from the colon DRUG DELIVERY Transit

Dietary factors Temporal factors Targeting the proximal colon pH Time

Bioadhesives

Bacterially triggered systems Bacterial degradation of drug Effect of disease and co-medication on colonic drug absorption RECTAL ADMINISTRATION OF DRUGS

Drug absorption and avoidance of first-pass metabolism

Dosage forms for rectal delivery

Adjuvants

Spreading of rectal dosage forms Therapeutic agents administered rectally Anticonvulsants

Preoperative medication and induction of anaesthesia Analgesis and antiarthritics

Antiemetics Antibacterial agents Xanthines

Drugs in inflammatory bowel disease Cardiovascular active drugs Rectal irritation and damage CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES

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