Introduction Structure Of The


Conjunctiva and sclera Choroid and retina Aqueous humor Eyelids

Precorneal tear film

Physical properties of tears Lacrimal drainage system Blood-eye barriers FACTORS AFFECTING DRUG PERMEATION Ionization and pH Protein binding Pigmentation and drug effects Drug distribution in the eye

Drug penetration through the sclera and conjunctiva FACTORS INFLUENCING DRUG RETENTION Proper placement of the eyedrops Influence of instilled volume Preservatives

Effect of systemically administered drugs ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION Topical Administration Drops Perfusion Sprays

Use of polymers to increase viscosity

Gelling polymers



Sustained release devices Intraocular drug delivery Liposomes

Microparticulates and nanoparticles Intraocular devices Iontophoresis Systemic administration CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES

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