Conjunctiva and sclera Choroid and retina Aqueous humor Eyelids
Physical properties of tears Lacrimal drainage system Blood-eye barriers FACTORS AFFECTING DRUG PERMEATION Ionization and pH Protein binding Pigmentation and drug effects Drug distribution in the eye
Drug penetration through the sclera and conjunctiva FACTORS INFLUENCING DRUG RETENTION Proper placement of the eyedrops Influence of instilled volume Preservatives
Effect of systemically administered drugs ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION Topical Administration Drops Perfusion Sprays
Use of polymers to increase viscosity
Sustained release devices Intraocular drug delivery Liposomes
Microparticulates and nanoparticles Intraocular devices Iontophoresis Systemic administration CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
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