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Saccharin Artificial sweetener.

Salbutamol 62 adrenoceptor agonist used to treat asthma. Also called Albuterol.

Salicylates Salts of salicylic acid.

Salicylazosulphapyridine See sulphasalazine. Salicylic acid o-hydroxybenzoic acid, one of the earliest analgesics, derived from willow bark.

SCFA See short-chain fatty acids.

Sebum Fatty secretion of sebaceous glands of the skin.

Secretin A hormone which stimulates pepsinogen secretion by the stomach and inhibits the secretion of acid by the stomach.

Sennosides Anthraquinone glucosides present in senna and used as cathartics.

Sephadex® Trade name for a polymeric gel with pores of controlled sizes, commonly used for size exclusion (gel filtration) chromatography, in which macromolecules are separated on the basis of their molecular weight.

Serotonin Also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine, a chemical present in platelets, gastrointestinal mucosa, mast cells and carcinoid tumors. It is also believed t be important in sleep and sensory perceptions.

Shellac A natural resin derived from the dried secretions of the lac insect.

Short-chain fatty acids Fatty acids with an acyl chain of less than 5-6 carbon atoms.

Sialase An enzyme which degrades sialic acid.

Sialic acid An amino-sugar widely found in mucus polysaccharides

Silicones Polymers based on silicon rather than carbon.

Silicones elastomers Highly flexible and elastic cross-linked silicone polymers used for medical devices such as catheters.

Silicones oil medium-chain silicone polymers widely used as viscosity standards.

Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) An imaging method which allow reconstructions of cross-sections through the body of a radiotracer.

Sinusitis Inflammation of the sinuses.

Skene's glands Glands lying just inside and on the posterior of the female urethra

Slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis See Leucotrienes.

Smallpox Acute contagious disease, which is regarded to have been eradicated in the modern world.

Smoking Inhalation of cigarette or cigar smoke. Persons indulging in this habit are at risk of extreme damage to their lungs.

Sodium alginate A viscous carbohydrate biopolymer derived from various seaweeds. Used in oral controlled release devices and to form a floating gastric 'raft' in antireflux agents.

Sodium azodisalicylate See olsalazine.

Sodium caprate Salt of capric acid, a short-chain fatty acid.

Sodium cromoglycate See Disodium cromoglycate

Sodium deoxycholate A surfactant with a steroid nucleus found in bile, whose purpose is to emulsify and transport fats during digestion. Used as a solubilizing agent and emulsifier in some drug formulations.

Sodium glycocholate A surfactant similar to sodium deoxycholate (q.v.).

Sodium hyaluronate A polysaccharide used to treat osteoarthritis of the knee. It is injected intraarticularly to supplement natural hyaluronic acid.

Sodium laurate Sodium salt of dodecanoic acid, used as a surfactant.

Sodium lauryl sulphate An anionic surface active agent used in pharmaceutics.

Sodium taurocholate A surfactant similar to sodium deoxycholate (q.v.).

Sodium valproate An anti-epileptic drug.

Sodium-potassium exchange pump An alternative name for the Na+/K+ ATpase.

Solution A liquid containing a dissolved substance. The liquid into which the substance is dissolved is called the solvent. The solute is the substance which is dissolved.

Solvent drag Proposal that the amount of water present in the small intestine affects paracellular drug absorption and may affect the absorption of small and hydrophilic drugs.

Somatostatin A hormone which inhibits the release of somatotropin. It is a hypothalmic peptide that also inhibits the secretion of insulin and gastrin.

Sonophoresis The use of ultrsound to increase the absorption of drugs through the skin.

Spacer devices These are used with pressurised inhalers. They provide a space between the device and the mouth reducing the velocity of the aerosol and the subsequent impaction on the oropharynx. They also allow greater evapration of the propellant so a larger proportion of the drug can be inhaled into the lung.

Span Trade name for a family of hydrophilic surfactants produced by esterifying fatty acids with a hydrophilic sorbitol nucleus.

Splenic flexure Junction of the transverse and descending colon.

Squalane An unsaturated carbohydrate present in shark-liver oil and some vegetable oils. It is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of cholesterol.

Squamous epithelia Flat form of epithelial cells.

SRS-A See Leucotrienes.

Starch Carbohydrate of the polysaccharide group found in plants. And includes pectins, dextrins and gums. All are reduced to simple sugars before being absorbed.

Status epilepticus A type of epileptic seizure.

Stem cells Cell which gives rise to a specific type of cell.

Stensen's duct Excretory duct of the parotid gland.

Stercobilin Brown pigment derived from bile. Gives the colour to faeces.

Steroid A Term applied to a large group of substances chemically related to sterol. Includes sterols, D vitamins, bile acids and certain hormones.

Sterol A group of substances related to fats and belonging to the lipoids. They are found in both plants and animals.

Stilboestrol A synthetic preparation possessing oestrogenic properties. It is several times more potent than the natural compound and may be given orally.

Stomach Sac-like distensible portion of the gut. It lies between the oesophagus and small intestine. It acts as the initial receptacle for ingested food where it processes it to chyme (q.v.). Stokes' law The relationship between settling rate, particle size, and viscosity in a particle supension.

Stratum basale Innermost layer of the uterus.

Stratum compactum Superficial layer of the endometrium.

Stratum corneum Outermost horny layer of the epidermis.

Stratum germinativum Innermost layer of the epidermis.

Stratum spongiosum Middle layer of the uterus.

Stroma Formation supporting tissues of an organ.

Subclavian vein Large vein draining arm.

Subcutaneous delivery drugs introduced beneath the skin.

Subcutaneous fat Layer of fat beneath the skin.

Sublingual tablet Tablets which are designed to be placed under the tongue.

Substance P An 11-amino acid polypeptide believed to be important as a neurotransmitter in the pain fibre system.

Succinic dehydrogenase An enzyme involved in the Krebs' cycle which converts succinate to fumarate.

Succus entericus See intestinal juice.

Sucrase Enzyme found in the intestinal juice which splits cane sugar into glucose and fructose.

Sucrose Sugar found in sugar cane and sugar beet. Split into glucose and fructose in the small intestine by sucrase.

Sufentanil An analgesic opiate analogue.

Sulphotransferases Enzymes responsible for sulpation of xenobiotics in the liver

Sulphapyridine A sulphonamide used to treat dermatitis herpetiformis.

Sulphasalazine Drug used to treat ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

Sulphomucins Sulphated mucin.

Sulphur dioxide An irritating gas. Used in refrigerators and as a bactericide.

Sumatriptan An antimigrane drug.

Superioris alaeque Muscle which raises upper lip and flares nostrils.

Suppository A semi-solid substance which is used to deliver drug to the rectum, vagina or urethra.

Surfactant An agent which lowers surface tension.

Suspension Solid particles which are suspended in, but not dissolved in, a liquid.

Symphysis pubis Junction of the pubic bones on midline in front.

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