Vaccines A suspension of infectious agents or part of them administered for the purpose of establishing resistance to an infection.
Vagus The 10th cranial nerve. It is a mixed nerve with both motor and sensory functions.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) Peptide present in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract with the main function of inhibiting gastric function and secretion.
Vasopressin Hormone formed in the hypothalamus. It has an antidiuretic effect and pressor effect that elevates blood pressure.
Vastus One of three muscles of the thigh.
Verapamil Calcium channel blocker used to treat hypertension and angina.
Villi Pl. of Villus. Short filamentous processes found on certain cells, generally to increase absorptive area.
X-ray studies x-rays are high energy electromagnetic waves varying in length from 0.05 to 100 A. They can penetrate solid matter to differing degrees and act on photographic film. Hence they are used for diagnosis and therapy. They were used to study the behaviour of drug formulations within the body, but the radioopaque materials adulterated the formulations nd the radiation dosimetry limited the number of x-rays which could be taken.
Xanthines drugs such as caffeine, theophylline and theobromine which are stimulants and diuretics.
Xerostomia Dryness of the mouth caused by reduction in the normal production of saliva.
Xylan An anticoagulant poysaccharide similar to heparin.
Xylometazoline A vasoconstrictor drug used to treat nasal congestion.
Zeta potential The electrical potential of a charged particle at its hydrodynamic plane. This is similar to the potential at the particle surface but takes into account the fact that the particle normally moves carrying a layer of adsorbed solvent. It is the zeta potential which is calculated from the drift velocity in an electrophoresis experiment.
Zonulae adherens See desmosomes.
Zymogen A substance that develops into a chemical ferment or enzymes. Zymogen granules are secretory granules of a pre-enzyme substance seen in cells of organs such as salivary glands or the pancreas.
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